POLA8H3: Exam Terms
Bretton Woods System:
Common Agricultural Policy (CAP):
Cosmopolitanism: a condition in which international organizations, transnational corporations,
global markets, and so forth are accountable to the people of the world. Associated with David
Held, Daniele Archibugi, Mary Kaldor, and others a cosmopolitan model of democracy requires
the following: the creation of regional parliaments and the extension of the authority of such
regional bodies (like the EU) which is already in existence: human rights conventions must be
intrenched in international parliaments and monitors International Rights of Human RIghts the
UN must be replaced a genuinely democratic and accountable global parliament.
Dumping: Dumping is an informal name for the practice of selling a product in a foreign
country for less than either (a) the price in the domestic country, or (b) the cost of making the
product. It is illegal in some countries to dump certain products into them, because they want to
protect their own industries from such competition.
Europeanization: Europeanization in political science has been referred to very generally as
'becoming more European like'. More specifically than this, it has been defined in a number of
ways. One of the earliest conceptualizations of the term is by Ladrech (1994, 69) who defines
(XURSHDQL]DWLRQVLPSO\DVµDQLQFUHPHQWDOSURFHVVRIUH-orienting the direction and shape of
politics to the extent that EC political and economic dynamics become part of the organizational
logic of national politics and policy making.
FDI: Foreign direct investment (FDI)or foreign investment refers to long term participation by
country A into country B. It usually involves participation in management, joint venture,transfer
of technology and expertise. There are two types of FDI: inward foreign direct investment and
outward foreign direct investment, resulting in a net FDI inflow (positive or negative) and "stock
of foreign direct investment", which is the cumulative number for a given period. Direct
investment excludes investment through purchase and sales.
Francis Fukuyama: Francis is a Japanese American author, economist, and political
philosopher. Fukuyama is on of the most well known Hyperglobalists, stating in his writing that
globalization is not avoidable. Fukuyama has completed his PhD of Government from Harvard
University. Although he has traditionally been seen as a right wing political philosopher,
Fukuyama endorsed Barack Obama in the 2008 US general election for president.
Global Warming: Environmental Theory that believes that CO2 emitted into the atmosphere by
warming argument would include former US vice president Al Gore and Canadian
environmental activist David Suzuki, both of whom commonly link environmental problems to
globalization. However, the theory has come under fire after the Climategate scandal at the
University of East Anglia in England.
Great Depression : $EVROXWHFUDVKRIWKH:RUOG¶VHFRQRP\LQWKHODWH¶V7KHJUHDW
depression remains to be the worst economic disaster in World History to this day.
Unemployment in the United States rose to a record 25%. The great depression would have had
an even worse effect on the world if it was not for an advance in job creation due to the Second
Humanitarian Intervention: The use of force on grounds that will benefit the people living in
nations may send their armed forces in to intervene for humanitarian needs.
IGOs: An international organization in which full legal membership is officially solely open to
states and the decision making authority lies with the representatives from governments.[Soft
ILO: The International Labour Organization (ILO) was set up in 1919 to raise labour standards
around the world. Each June, over 3,000 delegates from 180 member countries assemble for the
International Labour Conference (ILC) in Geneva, where they consider sundry labour and social
policy matters for two to three weeks.
IMF (International Monetary Fund): Established in 1945 with the headquarters in Washington
DC. In 2004 it had 184 states. The IMF monitors short term cross boarder payments and foreign
exchange positions. When a country develops chronic imbalances in its external accounts, the
1978 the IMF has undertaken comprehensive surveillance both of the economic performance of
individual member states and of the world-economy as a whole. The IMF also provides
extensive technical assistance. In recent years the fund has pursued various initiatives to promote
efficiency and stability in global financial markets.[Soft Break]
Immanuel Wallerstein: Born September 28th 1930 in New York City. He is decorated
American sociologist, historical social scientist and world systems analyst.
International Human Rights Regime: Under the UN Charter Article 1(3) To achieve
international cooperation in solving international problems of an economic, social, cultural or
humanitarian character, and in promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and for
fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language or religion..Articles 55
and 56 set out the basic human rights obligations of the UN and its member states. The Charter,
the Declaration and the Covenant (with the Optional Protocols to the international Covenant on
Civil and Political Rights) comprise the International Bill of Human Rights.
John Maynard Keynes ± 1883-1946: John Maynard Keynes was a British economist whose
advocacy of government-managed economies helped shape capitalism in the 20th century. He
taught at Cambridge, he wrote and edited economic journals, and he played important roles for
the British Treasury in both world wars.
The Versailles Peace Conference: Keynes was an adviser to the British finance department
from 1915±1919 during World War I, and their representative at the Versailles peace conference
in 1919. His observations appeared in the highly influential book The Economic Consequences of
the Peace in 1919, followed by A Revision of the Treaty in 1922. He argued that the reparations
which Germany was forced to pay to the victors in the war were too large, would lead to the ruin
of the German economy and result in further conflict in Europe. These predictions were borne
out when the German economy suffered in the hyperinflation of 1923. Only a fraction of
reparations were ever paid.
Just War Tradition (refer 201 GWP): Is a set of guidelines for determining and judging
whether and when a state may have recourse to war and how it may fight that war. JWT is
commit against other states, military forces and civilians. It has two parts:
Jus in bello
(justice in war)
refers to the means, weapons and tactics employed by the military
Proportionality of means: states must use minimal or proportional
force and weaponry ± i.e. state cannot use nuclear weapons when
conventional will suffice.
Non-combatant immunity: states should not directly target
civilians, civilian infrastructure, returned soldiers ± NCI is central
to Just War Theory ± i.e. if war is an instrument of justice, then an
injustice cannot be perpetrated against innocent civilians.
Cosmopolitanism: a condition in which international organizations, transnational corporations, global markets, and so forth are accountable to the people of the world. Un must be replaced a genuinely democratic and accountable global parliament. Dumping: dumping is an informal name for the practice of selling a product in a foreign country for less than either (a) the price in the domestic country, or (b) the cost of making the product. It is illegal in some countries to dump certain products into them, because they want to protect their own industries from such competition. Europeanization: europeanization in political science has been referred to very generally as. More specifically than this, it has been defined in a number of ways. One of the earliest conceptualizations of the term is by ladrech (1994, 69) who defines. :7450,3,943825,8,33. 702039,574. 0884170-orienting the direction and shape of politics to the extent that ec political and economic dynamics become part of the organizational logic of national politics and policy making.