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POLD89H3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Bretton Woods System, Environmental Defense Fund, Pesticide Poisoning


Department
Political Science
Course Code
POLD89H3
Professor
Waldemar Skrobacki
Study Guide
Final

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FINAL EXAM REVIEW – POLA84
EMERGING ECONOMY
- Emerging markets
- Refers to nations with social and or business activities that is in the process of rapid growth and
industrialization
- The largest of these types economies is India and China
- Though emerging economies are found in developing world or global south, these nations are in process of
development
- This is mainly due to benefit with of being incorporated into the globalization process
SILENT SPRING
- 1962 published by Rachel Carson
- Showed the harmful effect of pesticide on bird life particularly DDT
- The book mainly discussed harmful effects of pesticide on birdlife and pesticide
- Four chapters books focused on impact of pesticide poisoning had on humans which led to several illness such
as cancer
- She also predicted that pests will develop resistance to pesticides
oPesticides will have negative more impact on ecosystems
oThe direct impact it had was the environmental defense fund filed case against the U.S. government
o1967 suing for citizenship right to clean environment
Won in 1972 which led to eventual complete phasing out of DDTs
- This book came at a time of 1960 when environment was an international issue and combined anti-pollutionist
and conservationist agendas.
BRAIN DRAIN
- Refers to migration of highly educated and or trained professionals from poorer regions to wealthier areas or
poor countries to wealthier countries in search of better job opportunities and pay
- This is a huge impact on development of poorer regions and or countries because it drains the professionals
they need to have in order to develop the poorer areas
oEx. In Africa, 70,000 educated professionals on average leave to Western Europe Canada and U.S.
seeking better opportunities each year.
BRETTON WOODS SYSTEM
- Implemented following the Bretton Wood conference held between July 1-22, 1944 in which delegates from 40
allied nations gathered to implement a new international financial order
- They agreed upon the Bretton Woods System on the final day and crucial to the system was the implementation
of a new international monetary system which required the exchange rates of other countries fixed in terms of
the U.S. dollar in terms of gold at $35 per ounce
- Further the Bretton Wood System was implemented with the objective of preventing another great financial
disaster (i.e. 1930 Great Depression)
- Led to creation of other institutions such as World Bank
oCreated to help European countries re-develop following WW2
- International Monetary Fund (IMF)
ocreated to implement the rules of new financial system and stabilize the exchange rates
- General Agreement of Trades and Tariffs (GATT)
oReplaced by WTO in 1995
oIn Aug. 15, 1971 the U.S. unilaterally decided that the U.S. dollar was no longer going to be-fixed
to the Gold (Nixon Shock), ending the Bretton Woods system and creating an era of free floating
currencies
oThis institution created from Bretton Wood system perpetuated a cycle created by colonialization in
Global South which lead these nations in much more difficult path in terms of industrialization and
developing economic progress, independence from nations of global north.
BRUNDTLAND COMMISSION
- 1987
- Also known as World Commission on Environment and Development
- This brought to the negative impact of growth and progress is having on our natural resources and environment
- The main objective here of the commission was to shift focus from just growth to sustainable development
- They published our common future, which coined the term sustainable development
oTerm refers to “meeting the needs of presence without compromising the ability of future generations
of meeting their needs.”
- This highlights how the environment particularly maintaining of our natural resources is becoming more
important and central global issue in terms of governance maintenance
COLD WAR

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- Happened between 1945-1991
- East/West dispute all over different views organized or best run society
- Main actors in conflict was West led by U.S. and East USSR
- The U.S. ideology was based on notions of democracy, capitalism, and market capitalism
- East promoted Authoritarianism, Communism Germany, Central and Eastern Europe following WWII
- Security fears and East’s idea that capitalism wanted to kill communism and the Western fear that communism
wanted to take over the world
oThis led to the period of Cold War which exhibited arms race, economic conflict and proxy wars
between the U.S. and USSR (i.e. Proxy War such as Korean War)
- 1955 eight Central and Eastern European countries signed the WARSAW pact which was a treaty of mutual
defense
oThis treaty was signed in defense of the Western Germany being incorporated into NATO
oWhen the Cold War ended in 1991
Changed global political security environment and led to finding new purposes for the
NATO and the UN
COLONIALISM
- Refers to acquisition, maintenance and exploitation of one territory by people from another territory, mainly
Europeans
-Decolonialization occurred because of several reasons such as the defeat of European countries following
WWII
oThe UN charter promised they would respect the sovereignty of nations as well as the negative
attitude toward colonization
oIdeologies such as Marxism and the strategies of anti-imperial force
- Legacy of colonization can be found in the Global south by the cycle of dependency
- Further by the artificial states created by the colonizers as the borders of the states were created by the
colonizers and did not grow out of cultural or historical legacy
CONSTUCTIVISM
- The theory that the actions and words of people shape society and society in turns shapes the actions and
words of people which create rules
- These rules determine who the actors are in a given situation and directs and commits to take certain actions
- These actions and practices form predictable patterns that serve the interest of key agents
- In the 21st C.E, these agents are co-operations global economic institutions and wealthier countries
- Hold that power comes from material forces which is control of resources and discursive forces, which is the
control of language and ideas
- In term of international relations holds that anarchy is what we make of it
- We are only limited by the institutions and practices that we ourselves have created; therefore we must focus on
shared rules, practices, identities, values and norms
DIPLOMACY
- Is the process by which international actors communicate with each other in order to resolve conflicts without
going to war and find solutions to complex global issues
- In diplomacies the state is the central important actor in the modern international system
- The concept of state is central to all global relations in the politics
- Here, foreign policies in state express their interests/wants and how they go about securing these wants or
interests
- This is the process by which states interact
- There are three types of states with concerned with diplomacy
- The modern states which uses diplomacy for economic growth and to build up power and authority at home
and abroad
- The post modern state which use diplomacy to build regional and global regimes to prevent the security threat
by pre-modern states. (i.e. Pre-modern states are the biggest threat to global security as they haven’t for
activities such as drug trafficking and human trafficking)
EARTH SUMMIT
- UN conference on environment and development held in Rio
- It was the largest international conference and it raised the profile of environment as the international issue
- It brought about several important documents and arrangements such as “Agenda 21” and the international
convention on climate change and the preservation of biodiversity
- The most important issue discussed at the Summit was the aid pledges to finance environment improvements
under discussions
- This led to a review at the UN of Rio agreement by the newly formed commission on sustainable development
and special sessions at the general assembly
- In 2002, the 10th anniversary of the Earth Summit, the World Summit on sustainable development was held in
Johannesburg which showed how international focus has shifted from just environment to sustainable
development
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GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TARIFFS AND TRADE (GATT)
- It was an in-term agreement signed in 1947 under Bretton Wood System with the purpose of trade liberalization
which aims to remove or reduce barriers to free trade
- In 1960s, there was much progress made towards achieving free trade, but in the 1970s, the notion of
protectionism took hold and GATT was unable to prevent its most powerful and wealthier members from
implementing barriers
oEx. Which is multi-fiber agreement of 1973, in which the wealthier nations placed restrictions on
fabrics from developing countries
oThis directly violated the principle of non-discrimination of GATT
- GATT was initially seen as in-term agreement which was eventually going to be replaced by a formal institution
but this did not occur until 1994
- It was replaced with the WTO
- GATT promoted free trade among nations to increase economic integration among nations
GLOBAL SOUTH
- Refers to developing nations, which are poorer countries struggling with economic development and progress
- These are countries that are lacking well trained professionals, thus referring to brain drain
- Up to date technologies and are limited by smaller budgets
- States of Global South can be found in Central and South America, Africa and parts of Asia
- These nations have a legacy of colonialization which has created a cycle of dependency in the new
international order
- Also the nations of the Global South demonstrate the uneven and prejudicial process of globalization
oBecause, of a lot of natural resources and workforce they don’t have enough wealth to capitalize on
what they have for their own benefit
GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT (GNP)
- Is the total value of all the goods and services produced by the resources of all the residents and businesses
of a particular country regardless of their location
oThis includes incomes coming from abroad, thus indicates the intensity of the nations involvement or
incorporations in the globalization process
- Countries with higher GNP are the ones most benefiting from globalization
oThese countries are mostly located in the Global North.
- GNP is a tool to measure the economic power of a state which is fundamental in determining its military and
political power. Does not distinguish between qualitative and quantitative growth and cease both as an
economic growth.
HUMAN SECURITY
- Refers to security of individual, their physical, economic and social well-being with respect to their dignity and
protection with regards to human rights
- It’s a freedom from fear and freedom from want
- The individuals is the primary objects of safety
- It developed in the 1990s due to set factors such as the end of Cold War which changed global political security
environment
- Better understanding of everyday insecurities faced by the vast majority of the world’s poorer and everyday
citizen
- Globalization which create unprecedented changes and insecurities which led us to reevaluate our traditional
views on security
- Further human securities argue that there is an link between economic development and health
HUMANITARIAN INTERVENTION
- Defined as a state's use of "military force against another state when human rights violations are believed to be
present in such state
- It includes efforts to provide humanitarian relief, to evacuate individuals, and to separate and monitor forces
involved in conflicts
- Falls between two categories: consensual (agreed to by those in a control of a country or region) and imposed
(against wishes of governments and armed groups)
- Regarded as a collective global responsibility as it deals with protecting human rights, but often raises questions
concerning which of the two is more important: human rights or national security?
- Kosovo War – PRO
- Rwandan Genocide – CON
- Rise of human ideologies of human securities, as well as democracy -- these ideas promote humanitarian
intervention
oBecause of globalization, there is a larger demand for humanitarian intervention
HYPERGLOBALIZERS
- Understand globalization is unavoidable and has transformed the economy fundamentally
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