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University of Toronto Scarborough
Political Science
Holly Gibbs

POLB50 Exam Review: Definitons1 1. Legitimation Phase: Legitimation phase is after policy formulation and before implementation. The proposal enters the legislative arena, that is, Parliament the House of Commons and the Senate. The legislative stage is referred to as legitimation because the bill is put under the scrutiny of all the democratically elected representatives of the people and made legitimate by their approval. The first reading is the introduction; the second reading consists of debating and voting. This starts from committee stage, standing committees, special committees, then report stage. Then the third reading is the approval.The legitimation stage ends with the token approval of the governor general, which is the sign that the policy has been officially sanctioned. 2. Interpretation Phase: This is where the policymaking process ends. This phase is subject to judicial interpretation. Judges always had an impact on a law by means of how they interpreted it, but if a statute is actually challenged in the courts, the judiciary must decide whether its provisions are contrary to the Charter of Rights and Freedoms or to the division of power between federal and provincial governments. 3. Mandatory Voting: Mandatory voting is a system in which electors are obliged to vote in elections or attend a polling place on voting day. With a secret ballot, voters remain free to spoil their ballot papers or remove them from the polling booth, depending on the voting system. If an eligible voter does not attend a polling place, he or she may be subject to punitive measures such as fines, community service, or perhaps imprisonment if fines are unpaid or community service not performed. 4. First Past the Post (Single Member Plurality): FPTP is Canadas current electoral system. One local person per party on the ballot in a riding. Vote for ONE PERSON (MARK ONE X). One person wins the riding (electoral district). Generally produces Majority Governments. Reduces Seats of Extremist Parties. Some issues with SMP in Canada is that low voter turnout means that not all votes count, and there is strategic voting. Majority of seats does not mean majority of votes. For example Chretien liberals in 1993. Minor national parties win more popular vote than seats. For example Green Part and NDP in 2008. In Canada, often regional parties can win many more seats that there national popular vote; SMP favours electoral strategies that target regions. 5. Proportional Representation: Popular Vote better approximates number of seats in the House of Commons. Redesign ridings so that more than one seat is assigned to each riding. Every Vote Counts (beyond a basic % threshold); Ends Strategic Voting: Vote for whom you
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