Polb50 midterm- Key terms.doc

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Political Science
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Christopher Cochrane

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Terms Definitions Political Issue We try to solve our needs by our own efforts, which can be known as the private or voluntary sectors which function separately from the government. But when our needs get to a point where we can no longer solve them ourselves and we need government to help, it becomes a demand that is given to the public sector; the government. Politics The activity in which conflicting interests struggle for advantage or dominance in the making and execution of public policies. (1) Also known as the struggle of power and management of conflicts. Power The ability of one actor to impose its will on another to get its own way, or to do or get what it wants, usually considered to be the essence of politics and government. (1) Coercion Power based on a authorized physical force (including police, armed forces, jails, etc.) on which government has a near monopoly. Also used for class analysis as a term for what a government does (at the behest of the corporate elite) when the state cannot otherwise get the public to accept its decisions. (1,8) Legitimacy Our ancestors or we have had a hand in the creation of the government apparatus and the selection of the current governors, then we have in a sense agreed to be bound by its decisions and have cloaked it with legitimacy. In other words we have had hand to play in choosing the current government and its governors and therefore however they impose their will, we have to obey since its legitimate. -aka authority; authority is a legit power -person impose power on others because they feel it’s the right thing to do Authority Also known as government. It is called legitimate power that our ancestors and we have chosen and are bound to their decisions. -vast amount of power is authority (Canada) -it is done because it is right; stopping at red light -limits on authority: REFUSING TO DO WHAT THE POLICE SAY -EX: teacher and student relationship: teacher can only tell you to raise your hand in classroom but not outside Government The set of instructions that make and enforce collective, public decisions for a society, and (2) the group of people-the prime minister and Cabinet- and their supporters in Parliament who are currently charged to make such decisions. (1,20,21). Executive Power Ability to give large Monetary funding to corporations. See individuals through appointments. -AKA Crown -enforces laws; ex. Makes people pay taxes “THE SWORD” Study Notes: Approaches to the Study of Politics Five approaches can help interpret different aspects of the Canadian political system: 1. Institutional Approaches -Institution -Law vs. convention 2. Political Sociology Approaches - Social Cleavage Approach - Pluralist Approach - Marxist Approach 3. Political Behavior Approaches -Political Psychology 4. Rational Choice Approaches Possible essay questions Based on: (1)Quebec Separatism (2)Aboriginal Issue (3)Federalism (4)Responsible Government (5)Parliament (inside and out) Parliament -also known as LECTURE 1 MIDTERM FORMAT - TERMS - SHORT ANSWER( FOCUS ON PARLAIMENT, FEDERALISM AND RESPONSIBLE GOVERNMENT) LECTURE ONE ... STUDY MODEL OF THE POLITICAL SYSTEM Politics - a way of influencing and manipulating others, is the pursuit of power . The activity in which conflicting interests and struggles for advantage or dominance in making and executing policies Political Issue - Issues that arise in the political community that causes issues between governments within other states and parties within the states have problems Power - Probability that one actor within a social relationship will be able to carry out his own will over someone else Coercion - One person or agent is able to impose his own will on others by using force and threatening some force of punishment or to with hold some form of benefit. One source of power Ex. Police able to force on citizens not cooperate Military intervention ( Facing your will) War is another Legitimacy - another source of power - a person able to oppose their own will on others because that person believes that what the other person is doing is a right thing - is context dependent e.g – police asking for license, authority is legitimate power. Some things we can refuse to do from police officer ( limited power) Authority - is legitimate power - context dependent - limit of authority - has a boundary ( e.g. certain things a police officer says you do not have to Government - composed of a group of people ( prime minister , cabinet ) - interacting with society - the set of institution that make an enforce collective, public decisions for a society Executive - power to enforce laws ( sword) Legislative - power to create laws and policy ( the will) Judicial Power - power to interpret the law ( judgement) Interest Group - organization that exists to persue the common interest of the of the organization - may influence government policy and become an advocacy group Advocacy Group - use various forms of advocacy to influence public opinion or policy - play an important part in the development of political and social systems Pressure Group - Seek and influence governments ( type of advocacy group) Political Party - organized group that makes nominations and contests elections in the hope of influencing personnel and policy of the government Cleavages - divide within Canadian politics ex. French tuition ( French people pay less then those outside of Quebec because they have a different party that rules such as Bloc Quebecois) Cultural Hegemony - domination of one group over another Social Movement - the domain of challenging “ cultural hegemony” civil rights movement, feminist, human rights movement Lecture 06: Parliament Terms: Parliament of Canada: It is the federal legislative branch of Canada, seated at the Parliament Hill. It includes the Canadian monarch-Queen represented by the governor general, the senate, and the House of Commons. Canada employs the Westminster model (which promises potent government and political stability through PM and Cabinet) of government because it is based on the British system. The law must be approved by all three parts How a bill is passed: The bill becomes law by a bill a proposed piece of leg. Government bill, introduced in the House of Commons and the private member bill introduced by a cabinet minister. Bill c 35 introduced by a cabinet minister, by the label of the bill. Regardless of the bill it still as to be passed through both houses(H of C and Senate) and then house of Commons, based on three readings, written and then circulated, and then they vote on it. The speaker of the government party and in fact the government has an incentive the member of the opposition to increase there support in the house. The strict rules are to treat each other with respect, no first name-calling. Comment shouting across the floor. Queen: is part of the parliament. → Fundamental difference between Canada and US. Senate: is appointed by the prime minister, regional representation of 105 seats, property requirement, must retire at the age of 75, and house of sober second thought. House of Commons: There are 308 seats, allocated to provinces according to representatives by population with two exceptions, grandfather clauses and senate floor rule. There is a representation formula House of Commons: - Structure of the house, 308 seats. - Is elected not appointed, across the country on principle of representation. - Proportional to rep by population. - Grandfather clause: Rep of 1974 no province could lose seats. And you must maintain it. Quebec would never go below 75. - Senate rule of floor: missed - How are they allocated of 1985 assigned the seats which was 282, electoral. - Representation formula: same formula to determine the number of seats or shift it from one region to another. Ontario gains some seats
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