POLB52 final study notes.docx

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Political Science
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Christopher Cochrane

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POLB50 Lecture Note Lecture 2 How to think of Canada? - North American society - Economy:  lives beside most powerful economy (US)  Canada and US have largest trade relationship in economy  Have ten largest economy in the world in terms of GDP  Ten percent of the size of US economy  Depends heavily on US for own economy  Have to compete with US economy; economies of scale US has over Canada  More than 1.5 billions in goods crosses Canada us border everyday (Ukraine perspective)  Unreasonable to compare Canada with US all the time - Military  Canada lives beside most powerful military that world ever known  Have 13 largest military budget in world; not even 3% of what US spends  Have about 65000 soldiers  ‘miniscule’ in North American context  NORAD: Military arrangement between US and Canada; they corporate on NORAD  Canada contributed to NATO mission in Afghanistan and also only 1 Iraqt war - Culture  lives beside most dominant culture in world  2009-2010 a lot of TV watched from US  most music listened to on radios produced in US  satellite was seen as death of Canadian culture( idea that American programs chosen over Canadian programs) through Canadian perspective - Conclusion  Canada-US are more integrated economically, militarily, culturally and socially then perhaps any other two countries in the world  Canadian gov’t and media industry preoccupied with protecting Canadian culture from American  Canadians and Americans more similar then different  We know more about US then US knows about us  There is some antipathy Canadians have towards Americans An Immigrant Country - Canada is immigrant country  Like Australia and US, Canada is a young country and colonial country  Aboriginals have been in Canada for at least 15000 years (settlers have longer history than Europeans)  ‘immigrant society’  different immigrant groups came at different times Immigration and Settlement - French arrived to New France in 1600s and 1700s - British Settlement picked up in mid 1700s (East Ont) -> first come to US -> have war of Spanish Succession -> the British defeat the French -Loyalists arrived in late 1700s (east and Ontario); -> arrive after American Revolution; ->had professed loyalty to Britain ->worried after retribution after British lose war to Americans - American and Non-British Europeans arrived in late 1800ss (West) -> brought more diversity then ever - Non-European immigrants arrived in late 1900s (cities) -> Canada is more urban area -> move to cities -> have influx of immigrants that concentrate in the cities So, different immigrant groups arrived to different regions of country -So many Canadians are immigrants - challenge is that so many diverse cultures make identity of Canada difficult to distinguish Immigrants and Immigration - Canada has established an enduring experience with immigration - Almost one in five Canadians are foreign born Conclusion - Immigration shaped by and has in turn shaped the economic, social, political and cultural development of the country - Aboriginal settler relations - Relational difference - Shifting balance of power between regions  regionalism  urban-rural Canada as an Advanced Industrial Country - based on Modernization theory  controversial  notion is that society has passed through certain distinct stages st  started as nomadic (1 stage of human development)  then people learn how to raise livestock (agricultural societies; tend to be religious)  eventually population expands (industrialization occurs; economy moves into building textiles, cars,) (industrial stage-characterized by poor conditions)  as industrialization improves; move into advanced industrialization; want jobs in service industry rather than factory jobs (Canada) - As move through stages of development  levels of education increase  economic affluence  security increases  religion and traditional morality decline (people tend to become more secular)  political confidence and cynicism increase ; this leads to protest (because start to think that politicians not listening) (educated people may start to think that we can solve world protests)  overall, level of human development increases - see graph slide  idea is that manufacturing should stay relatively stable over time  tertiary sector should increase over time  primary sector should decrease over time Lecture 3 Introduction -How to study Canada Understanding Politics and Society How can we understand the relationship between society and the government? - Institutional Approaches  Institutionalism  Institutions: rules (sets of ideas) that govern the relations between individuals  Approach focuses on impact of formal political institutions  Focus on the effect that formal structures of government have on the behavior of individuals  E.g.: senate is an institution  Electoral assistance: different ways of counting votes  E.g.: what does the weakness of the senate have on national unity in Canada; one of the arguments is that in us everybody is focused on federal gov’t all the time, b/c always will look at senate is where your state representatives are; Canada’s senate is powerless, look to provincial gov’t instead of senate (senate not an effective representation of people’s views)  Important to look at when looking at politics and society - Group Based Approaches 1. Marxist approach to politics  Different than Marxism  Focuses on the relationship between labor, capital and the state  Refers to Marxist ideas  Politics is the playing out of conflict between labor and capital  States pursues interests of capital at the expense of labor  Karl Marx: those who own means of production and workers  Conflict originates around product higher price than that of paid to workers in order for business owner to make profit (conflict of wages within society)  James oconnour: state doesn’t create civil unrest because provides welfare system and military abroad  Groups in this case or labor, capital and business owners 2. Pluralist Approach  60s popular  Focuses on how gov’t resolves competing demands between groups  Tends to see competition as more or less equal  Sees politics as a competition between competing, but equal interests groups that form in a society  Idea that politics manages this conflict  Sees politics as competition between 3. Cleavage theory  Tells us that society are most likely to become democratic and remain democratic with cross-cutting cleavages (each cleavage indicates different group of people; find divided with some people and united with others)  Least likely to become democratic with overlapping cleavages (different cleavages create more divide) (reinforcing cleavages)  Different criteria that put us into different groups 4. State-Based Approach  Gov’t presented that different competing social groups  States (bureaucrats, civil servants, politicians) left out and has own interests  Arguments is that people within the state want to expand the states  Can think of state as political actor that interacts with other groups in society and has own interests - Individual-Level Approaches  Focus on the individual person, as opposed to the group, or the country or the organization as the key unit of analysis  Individuals exist within groups, countries and organization but person is unit of measure  Think of politics as collection of individuals  Rational choice theory:  Groups are but the interactions of individuals  Individuals are utility maximizes  Individuals are rational, idea of transitivity (is the most extreme case of this approach)  Comes from Peter Ordeshook  Each individual wants to minimize to reduce prison sentence. Take a look at Prison dilemma  Does not generate group rationality; idea that individuals might use transitivity property but group is non-transitive  Example of individual rationality and group non-rationality (creates collective irrational problem): passing on a highway, collective action problem (public goods), tragedy of the commons  Role of government in society: overcoming downsides of citizen rationality (Elinor Ostrom) like environmental protection  Political psychology  Rational choice theory concerned with pursuit of preferences, political psychologists delve even further and ask where those preferences come from  Example: preference-formation, framing effects and orientation to authority -Hybrid Approaches -> Are many approaches and most involves elements of many of these ->Rational-choice institutionalism ->Social psychology; co week 4 Lecture 4 Worldviews - or ideologies - defined in many different ways - political scientists tend to think of ideologies of individuals as belief systems - Converse:  defines a belief system as ‘a configuration of ideas and attitudes in which the elements are bound together by some for of constraint  by constraint he means: - each of us has belief systems - sets of ideas, attitudes, beliefs that each of us hold - some may not be conscious of it, some develop as they grow - where do people acquire these ideas? - can think of ideologies, however as property of a group or a society  Manheim  Talks about idea that there is a worldview of a group as a whole that we can characterize by listing their properties of group ideology  Ideology of group not equal to ideologies of group members  Group ideology is not simply some idea that each member of group shares - ideology can be seen from standpoint of the individual and group - culture  political scientists tend to use this terms to refer to worldviews of groups  general attitudes ideas of group
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