Political science exams terms.doc

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Political Science
David Perley

POLA90 Mid-Term Preparation: A. List of Possible Concepts/Identifies: Defining corruption: • Many different types –which type are we talking about…? • VERY difficult to measure (Quantitatively? Qualitatively? Perceptions?)… • Judging its impact/effects can be extremely difficult? • Are we studying the right thing? Is corruption and violence the real problem…? In other words, WHAT CAUSES WHAT????? • Corruption is a serious problem: • Expensive • Poverty creating • Can have a corrosive effect on governance… • Is correlated with increasing levels of violence Measuring corruption: • States, regimes, governments • States – basic institutions of a political system; indicates the ‘raw power’ or the ‘infrastructural power’ of the state; a state’s ‘hardware’… • Regimes – indicates how this ‘raw power’ is organized around a set of fundamental rules; those rules found are ideally formal – found within constitutions and bills of rights; the ‘software’ of the state… • Governments – indicates how power is used in Canada???? State formation in Europe: • Europe initially typified by high degrees of social and political fragmentation… • Political units competed violently with each other… • Winners began to accumulate power, resources, and territory – which created a demand for more… • Eventually, these growing political entities needed to regularize the manner in which they ruled over their populations – moving from the predatory extraction of resources to taxation by consent… • This is why Charles Tilly argues that, historically “war made the state”!!! Rational-legal legitimacy State capacity and autonomy The failed state index • It measures the fail states and it’s economy • Social = demographic pressures, refugee flows, presence of vengeance seeking groups, internal displacement • Economic = uneven economic development, sharp economic decline • Political = DE legitimization/criminalization of the state, deterioration of public services, arbitrary application of rule of law, rising power of private security provision, fictionalization of elite political class, increasing penetration of external actors… • Colonial legacies and states in the Global South: • Many colonial states were imposed on societies… • Emphasis on extraction of order and the resources…. • Powerful lines of authority and legitimacy moved globally… • Colonial systems of indirect rule – use of local, traditional forms of authority to maintain order over societies… • Underlying coercive nature to the political order (despite the relative small size of the colonial state – the ‘thin white line’)… o This is very important because it touches upon the economic and investment o What factors leads to violence o Factors that’s leads • Post-colonial state formation – the ‘modernization’ project • Clientelism (patron-client relations) • A way of linking up state and society… • Based upon exchanges and bargains between those with access to the state and those who want access to the state… • It facilitates processes of accumulation by political elite while generating the compliance of society…
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