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Political Science
Holly Gibbs

Definitions Legitimation Phase 4th step of the policy making process. The bill is introduced to the HOC where it is voted on by MPs. If accepted, the legislation is sent to the senate for review, if rejected, cabinet either makes changes to the bill or abandons it. If the senate approves, then the bill is given to the Governor General to receive royal assent. Significance: in Canada, some bills are passed through easily because of lack of time or expertise. This violates precision and efficiency in the government. However, it is an important phase because the vote decides whether the bill becomes enforced making it a critical phase. [%K0L;LO,77L,J0.9Z,8L3974/:.0/-\!7L20L3L8907!,:O,79L3 8 Liberal government in the Canadian House of Commons on February 1, 2005 as Bill C-38. It was passed by the House of Commons on June 28, 2005, by the Senate on July 19, 2005, and it received Royal Assent the following day. On December 7, 2006, the House of Commons effectively reaffirmed the legislation by a vote of 175 to 123, defeating a Conservative government motion to examine the matter again. This was the third vote supporting same-sex marriage taken by 9K700!,7OL,20398:3/079K700!7L20L3L89078L39K700/L1107039\0,78 Interpretation Phase Is the 6th step in the policy making process. The judges decide if regulation are opposing the Charter of Rights and Freedoms, or the divisions of power between the federal and provincial government. Significance: This illustrates the power held by the judges and how much value is put on the judicial aspect of a democracy. Ex: (THIS NEEDS FURTHER INFORMATION) Mandatory voting - It requires voting in elections or attending a polling place on a voting day. With secret ballot , electors are able to vote the way they please - If eligible voters do not attend polling, they may be subject to punitive measures such as fines, community service, or perhaps imprisonment - This system is currently practiced in Australia First past the Post (Single Member Plurality) Is when one local member from each running party is put on a ballot for representation of that riding, with the winning representative earning a seat in the HOC as an MP. $LJ3L1L.,3.0,3,/,8.:770390O0.947,O8\8902L8,30[,25O0419KL8$420 believe it is good as it produces majority governments and reduces the seats of 0[9702L8985,79L08ZKLO049K078-0OL0;0L9.70,908,O4Z;49079:734:9,3//4349 believe it is proportional. Ex: In 2005, BC had a referendum to abolish this electoral system, but it failed. 1 Proportional Representation Are the number of seats won by a party that would be proportionate to the total votes received. There would be no ridings. Everybody can vote once. ---(confirm this statement). It can have an open list or closed list. A closed list is where you vote for the party, as they decide the order of candidates to fill the seatThe open list is where you can vote for the representative you want Significance: It would be good for Canada as every vote would count, and minorities would be included more. Ex: In the 2008 election, this system would have given the liberals 4 more seats and taken away 18 from the conservatives. Mixed Member Plurality Is an election system where the legislature would consist of local candidate seats and party list seats, by people separately voting for a candidate and party on their ballot Significance: This would be good for Canada as it would be more likely to produce a majority rather than the proportional representation but the minorities would not be as included. Ex: Liberals would have gotten 63 instead of 72 seats in the 2003 election. Single Transferrable Vote A multiple seat riding where candidates are ranked by voters. There is a threshold percent - a candidate must win in order to get a seat. When a candidate meets the threshold, the remainders of the votes go to the 2nd ranked candidate, until another candidate reaches the threshold, until all the seats for that riding are filled. If no candidates reach the threshold, the last place candidate is eliminated and the second place ballots are counted. Significance: THIS NEEDS FURTHER ELABORATION Ex: This resolution failed to pass in 2005, but will be up for referendum again in the spring of 2009 Third Party Advertising In Canada, a third party usually refers to a relatively small federal or provincial political party that is not considered to have a realistic chance of forming a government, but has representation in the federal House of Commons or the provincial legislature. However, due to the Parliamentary form of government, during minority government situations, third parties may hold the balance of power, and thus exercise significant control over the governments policy. In Canadian politics, the term "third party" is also sometimes used to refer to agents other than candidates and voters who participate in elections. For example, campaign advertisements funded by groups other than the parties and candidates running may be called "third party advertising". This term has become more prevalent recently, since the current Canadian Parliament has seated members from four different parties, making the usual usage less meaningful. Following the 1993 election, the division between the "main" and the "third" parties started to break down, due to the poor showing by the Progressive 2 Conservative Party and the rise of the Reform Party and the Quebec-based Bloc Qu bcois. While the Bloc could never form a government because it never contested ridings outside Quebec, the Reform Party and its successor Canadian Alliance had some modest success and eventually merged with the Progressive Conservative Party to form the new Conservative Party which forms the current federal government. *Ridings/Constituencies - It is the division of the country into single member electoral districts, which is represented in the House of Commons by MPs - Because electoral district boundaries are proposed by arms length body, rather than directly by political parties themselves, gerrymandering is not generally seen as a major issue - Currently we have 308 ridings represented in the House of Commons Political Spectrum - Way of modeling different political positions/ideologies by placing them on an axis - By having parties on the political spectrum, it allows people to choose those who they feel best represent the people and their ideas - NDP-------------- Liberal--------------- Conservative Contemporary Political Ideologies - Political ideas that consists in our government represented by the current governing party - The primary political parties represent the political ideologies and allow the current citizens to elect those who citizens feel best represent their ideologies - Our current political ideology is represented by the conservative party of Canada Contemporary Political Ideologies - Political ideas that consists in our government represented by the current governing party - The primary political parties represent the political ideologies and allow the current citizens to elect those who citizens feel best represent their ideologies - Our current political ideology is represented by the conservative party of Canada *Party Leadership Convention - a convention held by a party when they need to choose a political leader. The political leader is the candidate for PM *Minor Parties - ,54OL9L.,O5,79\9K,95O,\8,82,OO0774O09K,39K02,M47L9\L3,.4:397\854OL9L.s and elections 3 - Existence of these parties in Canada can be explained by the fact that at one time or another, ethnic, regional, or class grievances have gone unsatisfied by the broker parties Ex: Green party, created in 1983) *Progressive Conservatives vs. Conservative Party - Cons. focused mainly on economic and social issues, and the conservative party was formed by a merger of the Canadian alliance and the progressive conservative and mainly focused on the decentralization of the federal government powers. At the right of the political spectrum. Ex: 2003 *Welfare Liberalism - the idea that the state can be a positive agent in liberating people from forces such as the economy (leftwing liberals) - liberal party sways between welfare and business Ex: Popular with the liberal party, and Western politics from 1950-1985 *Business Liberalism - the idea that the state inhibits individual self-efficiency, and its role should be minimalized to a mediator (rightwing liberals) *The Broker System - a party system where political parties try to appeal to many different interests by
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