Legitimation Phase: this is the fourth phase of the policy making process,
and can be reinterpreted as another word for the legislative process
This is due to the fact that the bill in question is brought into the
legislative arena Parliament- (the House of Commons and the Senate)
It is put under scrutiny by all of the democratically elected
representatives of the people and made legitimate by their approval
The Cabinet and the members of Parliament contribute political
expertise to the process, but due to the shortage of time and limited
The legitimating stage ends with the token approval of the Governor
Generals representation that the policy has been officially sanctioned.
Implementation Phase: is the fifth stage of the policymaking process.
Implementation normally requires the setting up of new admin
machinery new staff, agencies, operational manuals etc.
Royal assent does not automatically implement the bill.
It is not proclaimed or made operational until the government is ready
to implement it.
Minority government: A situation in which the party in power holds less
than 50% of the seats in the House.
As the party does not have a clear majority in the House, the
government cannot simply use party discipline to guarantee support in the
Instead, it must negotiate with opposition parties to gain their support
for government legislation.
The rises of minority governments in Canada (as are last several
elections have all resulted in minority governments) have both their pros
Some argue in favour of minority governments as governments are
forced to take into account the views of opposition parties, and thus more
opinions and ideas are represented. However, those who argue against minority governments state that
they are instable as they have a tendency to last for only a short period.
Consequently, governments are often unable to fully pursue their
policies or mandates before the coalition or negotiations with other partys
Factual Detail: Canada has had 12 minority governments.
Mandatory voting: a system in which electors are obliged
to vote in elections or attend a polling place on voting day.
With a secret ballot, voters remain free to spoil their ballot papers or
remove them from the polling booth, depending on the voting system.
If an eligible voter does not attend a polling place, he or she may be
subject to punitive measures such as fines, community service, or
perhaps imprisonment if fines are unpaid or community service not
First past the post: First-past-the-post voting systems usually require the
placing of a mark (commonly an X or sometimes a tick or other mark) in a
box on the ballot paper corresponding to a candidate(s) of the voter's
choice; however, in some cases it may involve the writing in of the chosen
First-past-the-post voting methods can be used for single and
multiple member elections. In a single member election the
candidate with the highest number, not necessarily a majority, of
votes is elected. T
the two-round voting system uses a first-past-the-post voting
method in each of the two rounds. The first round determines who
will progress to the second, final round ballot. In a multiple member first-past-the-post ballot, the first
number of candidates, in order of highest vote, corresponding to
the number of positions to be filled are elected.
If there are six vacancies then the first six candidates with the
highest vote are elected.
A multiple selection ballot where more than one candidate can
be voted for is also a form of first-past-the-post voting in which
voters are allowed to cast a vote for as many candidates as there
are vacant positions; the candidate(s) with the highest number of
votes is elected.
Proportional representation: Electoral system in which the share of
seats held by a political party in the legislature closely matches the share
of popular votes it received.
It was devised in Europe in the mid-19th century to guarantee minority
groups more representation than was possible under the majority
or plurality systems.
Its supporters claim that it creates a more accurate reflection of public
opinion; its opponents argue that by allowing more parties in a legislature,
it may result in weaker, less stable governments.
Two methods for apportioning seats are the single-transferable-vote
method, under which voters rank candidates by preference, and the list
system, under which voters select a party's list of candidates rather than
Proportional Representation: about trying to better approximate the
relationship between number of votes you have and the number of seats
you have in the House of Commons.
For example, in legislative assemblies, proportional representation ensures that political parties in legislative assemblies receive a number of
seats proportional to the percentage of vote they receivedknown as
party-list proportional representation.
It is significant because by rarely producing an absolute majority for
one party, PR ensures greater continuity of government and requires
greater consensus in policy-making.
Mixed Member Plurality:
Single Transferable Vote: is a voting system based on proportional
representation and preferential voting.
Under STV votes are initially allocated to an elector's most preferred
candidate and then, after candidates have been either elected or
eliminated, any surplus or unused votes are transferred according to the
voters' stated preferences.
The significance of STV in Canadian politics is that it is that it is non-
montonic, which means voters can penalize a candidate for ranking them 1
instead of 2, or 2 instead of 3.8 I.e., more votes can create a loser as
opposed to a winner.
refers to the fundraising and spending that political campaigns do in
their election campaigns.
Although the political science literature indicates that most contributors
give to support candidates with whom they are already in agreement, there
is wide public perception that donors expect illegitimate government favors
in return (such as specific legislation being enacted or defeated), so some
have come to equate campaign finance with political corruption and
n example of campaign financing is Calgarys Wild West campaign
financing where Calgary candidates fundraise and spend without limits
anytime they want and they can keep whatevers left over for themselves