Final Terms and Definitions for Final Exams

28 Pages

Political Science
Course Code
Holly Gibbs

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Political Institutions: the essence of politics lies not only in making and executing decisions for society, but in having to choose among competing demands, in trying to resolve conflict, or in making social choices in the midst of social conflict. Therefore, it can be said that politics originates during conflict, and is often defined as the struggle for power and management of conflict. State: refers to the organized political community that lives under a government. It refers to the various political parties and institutions that have a monopoly on influence and power within a certain area. Government: Can refer to the following terms: The ruling political party or coalition of political parties in a parliamentary system. The cabinet in a parliamentary system. The persons who make up a governing body. Responsible Government: refers to a government that is responsive to public opinion. It also pursues policies that are mutually and prudently consistent Is accountable to the representatives of the electors It embodies the foundation of the principle that forms the basis for the Westminster system of democracy It can be manifested in various forms, such as ministers accounting to Parliaments for the decisions and courses of actions taken by their respective department A minister also can be capable of holding office only because they are subject to the confidences of the lower house of Parliament Federalism: A system of government characterized by two levels of authority (federal and provincial) and a division of powers between them, such that neither is subordinate to the other. One of its functions is to provide an opposition to sovereigntist movements, such as those initiated by Quebec. Judicial Review: The power of the courts to overturn legislation or an action of the executive branch of the government Constitutional Monarchy: The official designation of the Canadian form of government. It is characterized by a monarch who is head of the state but rules according to the Constitution This monarch confides almost all governmental power towards other hands Rule of Law: The constitutional principle that all government action must be based on the law and that the government and its officials must abide by it. Democracy: a political system characterized by popular sovereignty, political equality, freedom and majority rule. People within society have the final say in who is going to be our leader. They also have an equal vote and represent the population of the nation. The larger number also takes precedence over the smaller. Democracy is one of the political values of Canada and is a way to participate in the political system. Its important because living in a democratic nation gives us the right to organize into collective action to bring attention to our demands so the government could respond to it. It gives people in society the power to create changes in policies and throughout the political system through the demand of reform, acts, legislature, etc. An example of this can be seen in the electoral system. People register to vote for the party that stands for their interests hoping they will win. Parliamentary Supremacy: Privilege: a special entitlement to immunity granted by the state or another authority to a restricted group, either by birth or on a conditional basis. It can be revoked in certain circumstances. In modern democratic states, a privilege is conditional and granted only after birth Legitimate Power or Authority: the ability of one actor to impose its will on another, to get its own way, to do or get what it wants. Public Goods: Any good that, if supplied to anybody, is necessarily supplied to everybody, and from whose benefits it is impossible or impracticable to exclude anybody. A third requirement often added to the definition is that each individual's consumption leads to no subtraction from any other individual's consumption of that good . A public statue is a near-pure public good; other typical examples include national defence, national parks, and clean air. Many goods are partly public and partly private. Left to itself, the market will not provide public goods because the rational egotistical citizen will free-ride. No national defence forces have ever been wholly provided from voluntary subscriptions (although some public statues have been). Constitutional Conventions: Pluralist Approach: the analytic framework closest to the democratic ideal. It postulates that power is widely dispersed among many interests in society, rather than monopolized and tightly controlled by one or more groups It also claims that the political system is characterized by much openness. It also suggests that individuals can make use of many different resources at their disposal and to organize any they want in order to back their demands to the authorities. The authorities make decisions that are basically compromises among the various competing interests that articulate their demands Different policy areas are characterized by different individuals and groups making demands on different authorities Advocacy group activity is increasingly replacing individual and party activity in the political system Public Choice Approach: also assumes that Canada is a democracy Is a bargaining process in which both politicians and voters act in a rational, self-interested fashion In return for votes, politicians make promises to benefit their voters, and if they seek re-election, they adopt policies that are capable of keeping
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