POLB50; midtermkeyterms.docx

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Political Science
Christopher Cochrane

Executive Governor General receives his power from the governor in council, cabinet and PM GG deals with PM Not part of the cabinet Appointed by PM Must give approval for dissolving of parliament Royal assent Prime Minister First member among equal other members Power far exceeds others Holds 3 main courses of power Hire and fire cabinet ministers Leader of political party Dispenses patronage Can give out medals Summarizes Cabinet Consensus Bureaucratic Support Staff (PMO) Two main restrictions Representational imperative Cant centralize it himself Must represent minorities Time Cannot do it all Because he’s out meeting others In House of Commons Checking that his members are okay Works for political party Departmental vs. institutional Departmental Department within cabinet takes responsibility of the actions Institutional Collectively take responsibility as a whole Must be certain amounts of members in the cabinet Has to be a clear diversity Cabinet Confidence Appointed by PM Convention is rare, but it does happen Fused; legislature and executive power together Cabinet and PM are able to sit together for bills and also enact them Sword Executed power (will) Not just the idea, but also the physical act Must vote with the PM Responsibilities of Cabinet Supervise, Decide and Represent Departmental vs. Institutional Cabinet Cabinet Committees Priorities and planning Treasury Board Operations Social Affairs Economic Prosperity and Sustainable Growth Foreign Affairs and Defence National Security Responsible Government advisors to the government would be both chosen from and reflect the views of the elected assembly presented a problem in the colonies because on many subjects Britain wanted the governor to do its will, not that of the local assembly remains a sacred principle of Canadian government and is usually expressed as follows a form of government in which the political executive must retain the confidence of the elected legislature and must resign or call an election if and when it remained otherwise undemocratic in the sense that the vote for the assembly was limited to privileged white men need confidence in the government 50%+1 vote to be the government if they do not have it, must step down usually money bills trigger confidence votes Proroguing Government Freezes government Confidence vote In a sense buys more time Federalism Formal political rule that involves the sharing of power between regional self rules with either party being sub-ordinate to the other Each region with ‘sovereignty in itself,’ with limited powers on the general government Provincial or state rights defining feature of a nation or state System was taken from the Americans, enacted by Sit John A Macdonald Canadian system ‘fixed’ the mistakes Americans made about allowing each state to set up their own criminal law practices Criminal law was part of the Federal government in Canada Deals with 2 main things Centralization Decentralization Unitary system Concentration of power in federal government Federal government Disbursement of power Residual powers Powers that are leftover that have not been assigned previously to either provincial or federal Automatically becomes federal governments responsibility Conditional grants (aid conditionality) Block grants Equalization payments Have not provinces; need support Have provinces; doesn’t need support Reservation Section 57 Support of GG is withheld until something is changed in regards to the law or the prorogation King bing affair Asymmetrical Federalism Provincial powers are significantly different than other provinces Vary based on each one John a macdonald Calling a confederacy, but we were very united Different provinces coming together Once youre a part of it, the federal government has a lot of power Very unitary Confederacy Group of ‘entities’ Can withdraw Can say no Unitary Sir john a macdonald Top-down Central Federal Decentralize over time Multi-levels Not always equal sovereign rights Disallowance (s.56) and Reservation (s.57) Quasi-Federalism (K.C. Wheare) JCPC Judicial committee of privy council 1933, highest court that Canada could go to in England after 1933, many steps were made Canada retained more of its power After 1982, charter of rights and freedoms Completely severed the JCPC completely Constitution Act 1867, s.91 and s.92 Gesture also served to reward the loyalty of the French for not joining the American Revolution Divided the colony into two Upper and lower Canada Each with governor, and executive council, an appointed legislative council, and a loyally elected assembly Lower Canada Appointed councils were primarily composed of Anglophones, and the assembly of Anglophones Upper Canada Almost exclusively English, the constitutional act provided for british, rather than French civil law Executive council gradually evolved into the cabinet, while the legislative council was the forerunner of the senate Direct and Indirect Taxation Section 91-92 of CC of 1867 outlines the powers of both provincial and federal government 91; direct taxation (Federal) taking directly on the individual ex.
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