Deterrence: Is a strategy intended to dissuade an adversary from undertaking an action not yet started, or to prevent them from
doing something that another state desires
If you attack me, I’ll attack you doubly
for deterrence to work, leaders are rational (sensitive to loss)
the threat of retribution must be large
alternatives must be available
ex. Mutually Assured Destruction during Cold War
a philosophy that both sides held to
both sides assumed that the other side was rational
realists do not believe that states will escape the security dilemma
Arms Control: international disarmament or arms limitation, esp. by mutual consent.
go back to the notion that states have common interests that they can pursue in global politics
common interest in not fighting
pursue their interest through other means
Two blocs of states reducing their armaments so the other side does not feel threatened
not pursuing an unending arms race, but cooperating with the other side to reduce the insecurity between you
o cooperation is possible and prevalent even in a conflictual situation like security
United Nations: The United Nations was established to preserve the peace between states after the Second World War
The institutions and mechanisms of the United Nations reflect both the demands of great power politics and universalism.
They also reflect demands to address the needs and interests of people, as well as the needs and interests of states. The
tensions between these various demands are a key feature of UN’s Development.
While the UN does not have a monopoly on peace operations, while the UN often provides legitimation, operations are
sometimes conducted by regional organizations, ad hoc coalitions, or hybrid arrangement involving the UN with non- UN
Dependency: In international relations, a weak state dominated by or under the jurisdiction of a more powerful state but not
formally annexed by it. The dominant state may control certain of its affairs, such as defense, foreign relations, and internal security,
and allow it autonomy in domestic affairs such as education, health, and infrastructural development. In the 1960s and '70s the term
referred to an approach to understanding third-world development that emphasized the constraints imposed by the global political
and economic order.
Dependency theorists were interested in persistent and deepening inequality and relations between North and South, but
they received little attention in the discipline
Neomarxist “Dependency Theory” focused on the relations between advanced capitalist powers and less developed states
and argued that the former – aided by an unholy alliance with the ruling classes of the developing world – had grown rich
by exploiting the latter.
Westphalia: The Peace of Westphalia was a series of peace treaties signed between May and October 1648 in Osnabrück and
Münster. These treaties ended the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) in the Holy Roman Empire, and the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648)
between Spain and the Dutch Republic, with Spain formally recognizing the independence of the Dutch Republic.
Transition from feudal Europe to modern Europe before 1648, Europe was divided up by a feudal system
o Multiple and overlapping authorities over the same territories
Princes got to decide the religion of the state
Now we have a set of independent sovereign units who have control over a specified territory
Generation of Rights: Regime Development Stages:
Tariff: a tax or duty to be paid on a particular class of imports or exports.
Mercantilist policy - It is much more about doing whatever you can do economically to obtain a more dominant position
o High tariff policy – Import less, export more
The General agreement on Tariffs and Trade was signed in 1947 and became a forum for negotiations on trade
Genocide: Acts committed with the intent to destroy a national, ethnic, racial or religious group. The UN convention on the
Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide was adopted in 1948.
One of liberalism’s BIG points.
The idea that if one member of a group is attacked, everyone in the group responds
Removing the security dilemma
o Classical liberal idea
An idea that comes from the idea that progress is possible
Human nature is inherently good
The liberal idea that states can call 911
Conditions that need to be met:
Wars can be prevented by restraint of military action
Aggressors must be stopped
The aggressor is easy to identify
The aggressor is always wrong
Aggressors know that the international community will act against them
League of Nations failed:
When Italy invaded Ethiopia
Identifying the aggressor is not easy
Is NATO a collective security organization?
It is not clear today whether NATO is an alliance or a collective security organization
Bombing in Kosovo, Libya, Afghanistan
NATO is a force to stop aggression
o The lines of power have become blurred because it is unclear whether or not it is an alliance which protects its
own members, or a humanitarian group
Balance of power: In realist theory, refers to an equilibrium between states. It is a doctrine and an arrangement whereby the power
of one state (or group of states) is checked by the countervailing power of other states.
o dominance must be constrained (if an actor that is becoming more power than the entire world combined, that is a
problem because you can never balance that power)
o states will always try to increase their power
o all the parties have to believe that negotiation is better than war
o war is better than losing power
o other states can be allies
o states follow their own interests (your reliance in other states is only a marriage of convenience) (only works if both of
you have an