POLB80 - Final Exam review.docx

5 Pages
Unlock Document

Political Science
M.Hoffmann- Universityof Toronto

Deterrence: Is a strategy intended to dissuade an adversary from undertaking an action not yet started, or to prevent them from doing something that another state desires If you attack me, I’ll attack you doubly  for deterrence to work, leaders are rational (sensitive to loss)  the threat of retribution must be large  alternatives must be available  ex. Mutually Assured Destruction during Cold War  a philosophy that both sides held to  both sides assumed that the other side was rational o assumptions o problems  realists do not believe that states will escape the security dilemma Arms Control: international disarmament or arms limitation, esp. by mutual consent.  go back to the notion that states have common interests that they can pursue in global politics  common interest in not fighting  pursue their interest through other means  Two blocs of states reducing their armaments so the other side does not feel threatened  not pursuing an unending arms race, but cooperating with the other side to reduce the insecurity between you o cooperation is possible and prevalent even in a conflictual situation like security  international organizations United Nations: The United Nations was established to preserve the peace between states after the Second World War  The institutions and mechanisms of the United Nations reflect both the demands of great power politics and universalism. They also reflect demands to address the needs and interests of people, as well as the needs and interests of states. The tensions between these various demands are a key feature of UN’s Development.  While the UN does not have a monopoly on peace operations, while the UN often provides legitimation, operations are sometimes conducted by regional organizations, ad hoc coalitions, or hybrid arrangement involving the UN with non- UN actors. Dependency: In international relations, a weak state dominated by or under the jurisdiction of a more powerful state but not formally annexed by it. The dominant state may control certain of its affairs, such as defense, foreign relations, and internal security, and allow it autonomy in domestic affairs such as education, health, and infrastructural development. In the 1960s and '70s the term referred to an approach to understanding third-world development that emphasized the constraints imposed by the global political and economic order.  Dependency theorists were interested in persistent and deepening inequality and relations between North and South, but they received little attention in the discipline  Neomarxist “Dependency Theory” focused on the relations between advanced capitalist powers and less developed states and argued that the former – aided by an unholy alliance with the ruling classes of the developing world – had grown rich by exploiting the latter. Westphalia: The Peace of Westphalia was a series of peace treaties signed between May and October 1648 in Osnabrück and Münster. These treaties ended the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) in the Holy Roman Empire, and the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) between Spain and the Dutch Republic, with Spain formally recognizing the independence of the Dutch Republic.  Transition from feudal Europe to modern Europe before 1648, Europe was divided up by a feudal system o Multiple and overlapping authorities over the same territories  Princes got to decide the religion of the state  Now we have a set of independent sovereign units who have control over a specified territory Generation of Rights: Regime Development Stages: Universal Rights: Currency exchange Tariff: a tax or duty to be paid on a particular class of imports or exports.  Mercantilist policy - It is much more about doing whatever you can do economically to obtain a more dominant position o High tariff policy – Import less, export more  The General agreement on Tariffs and Trade was signed in 1947 and became a forum for negotiations on trade liberalization Ethnic conflict: Genocide: Acts committed with the intent to destroy a national, ethnic, racial or religious group. The UN convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide was adopted in 1948. Collective Security: One of liberalism’s BIG points.  The idea that if one member of a group is attacked, everyone in the group responds  Removing the security dilemma o Classical liberal idea  An idea that comes from the idea that progress is possible  Human nature is inherently good  The liberal idea that states can call 911 Conditions that need to be met:  Wars can be prevented by restraint of military action  Aggressors must be stopped  The aggressor is easy to identify  The aggressor is always wrong  Aggressors know that the international community will act against them League of Nations failed:  When Italy invaded Ethiopia  Identifying the aggressor is not easy Thinking Critically: Is NATO a collective security organization?  NO  It is not clear today whether NATO is an alliance or a collective security organization  Bombing in Kosovo, Libya, Afghanistan  NATO is a force to stop aggression o The lines of power have become blurred because it is unclear whether or not it is an alliance which protects its own members, or a humanitarian group Balance of power: In realist theory, refers to an equilibrium between states. It is a doctrine and an arrangement whereby the power of one state (or group of states) is checked by the countervailing power of other states.  rules o dominance must be constrained (if an actor that is becoming more power than the entire world combined, that is a problem because you can never balance that power) o states will always try to increase their power o all the parties have to believe that negotiation is better than war o war is better than losing power o other states can be allies o states follow their own interests (your reliance in other states is only a marriage of convenience) (only works if both of you have an
More Less

Related notes for POLB80H3

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.