midterm review

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Department
Political Science
Course
POLB80H3
Professor
Francis Wiafe- Amoako
Semester
Fall

Description
MIDTERM REVIEW! • International Relations: The field of International Relations deals with the relations among states or world governments through intertwining policies ex. You can’t say you don’t want to deal with a certain state- US and Cuba. Concerns the relationship among the world’s governments. Other actors that make us understand the dynamics of the relationship include international organizations, multinational corporations, individuals, domestic politics and non-state actors. These elements contribute to the central trend of IR today- globalization (2 key events in recent years= the September.11.2001 terrorist attacks and the global economic recession in 2008-09) Some of the issues include State Sovereignty, Global finance, Terrorism, Human Security, Nuclear Weapon Proliferation, Economic Development, Environment Sustainability, Organized Crime, Human Rights, etc IR revolves around one key problem: how can a group serve its collective interests when doing so requires members to for go their individual interests? The origins of IR could be traced back to the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 which ended the Thirty Years war. The treaty of Westphalia established the concept of State Sovereignty. • Collective security: the concept grows out of liberal institutionalism refers to the formation of a broad alliance of most major actors in an international system for the purpose of jointly opposing aggression by any actor. Success depends on 1) the members must keep their alliance commitments to the group and 2) enough members must agree on what constitutes aggression ex. UN • Individual state interest poses a challenge to overall international interest leading to collective action problems, namely Free Rider problem, the tragedy of the commons, and Prisoner’s dilemma. • Prisoner’s dilemma: end up with a suboptimal outcome that is a negative consequence of anarchy. Every state is motivated to act selfishly. you want to be in nuclear power- like Iran is trying to do, it brings a deterrent against an opponent, if the US has more nuclear land mines then they have leverage and benefit, if we both cooperate then we both get more benefits • Collective goods problem: how to provide something that benefits all members of a group regardless of what each member contributes to it Ways of dealing with the collective action problems include (1) The principle of Dominance: The establishment of a hierarchy where those at the top control those below- Hegemony. E.g. UN Security Council; United States; nuclear arsenals should be kept with the 5 permanent members of the security council (principal of dominance- putting the hammer and power into one state, Thomas Hobbes and the Leviathan), make only the states that are the 5 permanent members of the security council the ones with the power, just let a few countries have the power and we will all be safe (2) Reciprocity: The rewarding of positive contribution to the society (tit for tat) and punishing behaviors that pursue self-interest at the expense of the group; exchange nuclear proliferation for economic gains. Ie. Libya in 2003, and North Korea was warned by the US in 2006 that US would retaliate any NK arsenal used against it. Its leader used to be Gadhafi, he was rewarded with an invitation to take part in the meeting since he didn’t want anything to do with nuclear weapons (3) Identity (Small Group Organization): Identify participants as members of a community. Many states with nuclear weapon capacities have chosen not to do so. Ie. Canada is noted for neutrality this is what you believe in and who you are BALANCING OF POWER • Refers to a concept where the power of one or more states are used to balance that of another state (stronger state) or group of states • BOP argues that such counterbalancing occurs regularly and maintains the stability of the international system. The system is stable in that rules and principle stay the same but doesn’t imply peace. • Alliances play a key role by building up ones own capabilities against a rival • States “bandwagon” on the most powerful states • Building up one’s capability against rival is a form • A state is that organization that has a “monopoly on the legitimate use of physical force within a given territory” (Max Weber). A state can be de facto or de jure – A state is a territorial entity controlled by a government and inhabited by a population/ citizens. Operated by an institution ie. Police, military - 2 kinds of states-empirical de facto; a state that we all know is a state but isn’t actually. Somalian constitution operates as a state ie Taiwan a very common industrial state but has not reached a de jure state- in the judicial sense an entity is a state under international law when it is recognized as such by other states even if it does not have the monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a given territory. Ie issue of Palestine when the 193 states meet in a general assembly. To change it has to be recognized by 100 states or more. Just in Africa there are 54 states. Only de jure states can enter into international agreements and be represented on the international for a like that of the United Nations. • Non-state actors include Intergovernmental Organizations (IGOs) such as OPEC, WTO, NATO: is an intergovernmental military alliance which encompasses western Europe and North America. Formed in 1949 and headquartered in Brussels, Belgium. France is the only NATO member not integrated in military since 1966. ; Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs) such as Red Cross, World Vision. Both IGOs and NGOs make up International Organizations (IOs); Multinational Corporations such as Toyota, Wal-Mart • Levels of analysis are an attempt to explain the actors and processes that influence world events. These are the individual, domestic, and systemic levels. It is a means of explaining the why certain things happen in the world. • - 1st level= individual level, concerns the perceptions, choices and actors of individual human being- great leaders make history (Lenin and the Soviet Union was formed in 1945 and became a power, we can trace change to an individual’s actions ie. Hitler) - 2nd level= domestic level, the aggregation of individual actions within the states influences a state actions in the international arena. Thus domestic regimes of states drive international politics. Ie. The president of the US needs to discuss with his advisors etc, before making a decision - 3rd level= systematic level, the effect of international anarchy is affecting/ influencing states behaviour. This level of analysis focuses on the relative power of states and by far the most important of the levels of analysis. • Groupthink: refers to the tendency for groups to reach decisions w/o accurately assessing their consequences, because individual members
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