POLB90 Terms.docx

12 Pages
Unlock Document

Political Science
R Rice

Import substitution industrialization (ISI) A strategy of individual development based on manufacturing goods domestically that was previously imported. Merits - Politically popular (job creation, consumer subsidies) - Improvements in social and economic indicators - Form of economic independence/self-sufficiency - Established a manufacturing base Limits - Sectorial disparities - Inefficient productions – not able to compete without protection - Disappointing industrial employment results - Small domestic markets limited growth - Heavily dependent on loans LA and Africa. Longer ISI resulted in more economic crisis Export Oriented Industrialization (EOI) An industrialization strategy that is heavily tied to exporting manufactured goods. - By diversifying their economics into manufacturing for export, as well as for domestic consumption, many of the East Asian economies managed to avoid the economic pitfalls faced by LA and Africa. East Asian Miracle The economics take off of South Korea, Taiwan, hongkong, and Singapore in 1980s When much of the Global South went into economic declines. Unlike LA and Africa debt crisis and struggles East Asia has grown phenomenally Reasons for success - Developmental state or strong state intervention or statecraft - Relative income equality (larger domestic markets) - High educational level (technically skilled workforce) - Successful agrarian reform (agricultural surplus used for industrialization - Switched to EOI (more capital for investment, didn’t have to borrow) - Semi or soft authoritarian (contained conflict) - Skilled bureaucracy (worked with big business in their countries) - Relatively work civil society (unchallenged by labor/peasant groups) - Confucian culture (Hard work, honesty, cooperation, social harmony) The Developmental State 1 A state that intervenes actively in the economy in order to guide or promote particular development goals, such as growth and equity - East Asian countries have grown through the free market, but also with a significant state role. Ex) Japan, Singapore, Taiwan. - Similar to neoliberal or free-market of economic competition to secure growth. Private entrepreneurs are primarily responsible for promoting economics activities. Unlike free-market capitalism, the developmental state rejects the idea of the invisible hand as the regulator of the marketplace and gives the government a central role in economic development - Government decides national priorities and assists industry (individuals driven by self interest not trustworthy to do this) - Economics growth and equity are viewed as essential for development: investment in education, health, housing, infrastructure and agriculture. (Industrialization should not mean neglecting age or rural sector) - For more extensive and direct government economic intervention than in the West, targeting either whole economic sectors (such as agriculture particular companies. In all of the East Asian tigers, the state played an important role, guiding the private sector toward targeted economic activities and stimulating growth in areas that the government wished to expand. - Labor-intensive, low skill manufacturing, -> capital intensive, highly skilled manufacturing. Statism - A capitalist economic system that involves excessive state intervention in economic matters - While much of the economic activity remains in the hands of the private sector, statist governments tend to nationalize strategically important enterprises, such as railroads, airlines, petroleum industries power plants and telephone companies and to invest in or protect industries that fail to attract sufficient private capital Characterized by Nationalization: government takeover of privately owned industries Protectionism state policies to protect infant industries from international competition through tax breaks, retraction on import. Limitations - State-owned enterprises are often poorly run and overstaffed. First many state owned enterprise are frequently overstaffed an poorly run results in inefficient, expensive operation, as well as political pressure to sell at a low price = low money. - Encourage inefficiency in private sector through protectionist policies protection (e.g., tax breaks, tariffs on imports, import quotes) are commonly used globally, but need to be scaled back as infant industries grow so that firms have incentives to become more productive and internationally competitive. In LA and Africa, protectionism was maintained. - Combination of money losing state-owned industries and private sector subsidies bankrupted much Third World government and put them in a downward economic spiral. Sustainable Development Development that meets the needs of the present generation, without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their own needs. World commission on Environment and Development - Focuses on how to sustain a broad process of positive change called ‘Development’ - Employs the idea of “meting needs” to emphasize the legitimate claims of the world’s poor - Invokes the idea of environmental limits as a potentially serious obstacle to continued social advancement. - Dominant discourse in development it suggests that it is not a question of a choice between environmental protection and social advancement but rather a problem of selecting patterns of economic and social development that are compatible with sound environmental practices. - Criticism - Anthropocentrism- human welfare focused, should focus more on sustainability of the natural environment - Sustainable development as a crude attempt to impose a Northern environmental agenda on the South - Mainstream view: Sustainable Development can be promoted by better resource management and by using market mechanisms. - Alternative/Human Rights view: Sustainable development can be achieved through, local participatory process of environmental management (self- reliance, small scale) - Radical view – the pressure exerted on the environment already exceeds global ecological carrying capacity, thus dramatic action is need most. Poverty and the Environment Debate: impact of Third World Economic Development and Industrialization - Industrialization and economic growth main environmental concerns - Increase in pollution will cause climate change catastrophe. - Whole world cannot live the way the North does (ecological limits of the planet) concern in China Development - Counter – need to speed up development to get countries through the higher pollution stages of economic development (primary and secondary sector), as economic development leads to knowledge-intensive industries – problematic logic. - Debate: Poverty = Survival by any means, including environmental degradation - Lack of industrialization and poverty main environmental concerns - Broad- poverty is commonly believed to drive the poor to seek survival through any means possible, including those that degrade the very resources they depend on e.g. cutting down every last tree in the forest. Thus, poor people are seen both as victims and as agents of environmental degradation. However, Broad’s research on the Philippines shows the poor as environmental protector’s when: a) environmental degradation threatens the natural resource bass off of which the poor live; b) poor people have ties to the land and a sense of permanence; c) civil society is organized and mobilized. - Socio-economic and political relations reasons (why the poor are poor?) provide better explanations of the abuse of natural resources (e.g. George- Debt/ Environment connections: 1) borrowing to finance large –scale ecologically destructive projects (e.g. hydroelectric dams); 2) repaying loans by selling off natural assets (e.g. intensifying cash cropping for expert) - It is not their poverty, per se, that is counting local people in the Global South, which degrade the environment but, global political and economic forces that arise behind their actions. Debate: Over-Population or Over-Consumption as Key environment and Development Problem - Over-population: “People vs. Resources” perspective (carrying capacity of Earth estimated between 7.7 and 12 billion people. - Malthus – people reproduce geometrically, food grows arithmetically Population growth key cause of poverty and suffering – disaster. - Neo-Malthusian – population the cause of problems, but human intervention can limit population growth - Social development view: rapid population growth is not the cause of socio economic and environmental problems but rather a symptom. Development tends to result in lower fertility rates. Over- Consumption: inequitable distribution of resources perspective. Its not poverty, but affluence, that is the real problem, per capita emissions higher in developed world. Participatory/Alternative Development Seeks to include the various stakeholders in the proposing, planning, implementation and monitoring of development projects. - NGOs have been key players in alternative or participatory approaches to development in the south. - Failure of mainstream development models = search for alternatives in 1960s - Answer an increasing the capacity of the poor to meet their own needs (building an own capabilities and experience) - Failure of conventional development because of lack of real dialogue between beneficiaries and the program implementers. Key Characteristics. - Needs-oriented: in terms of meeting both material and non-material human needs (e.g., self-esteem, confidence; skills and assets) - Endogenous: each society defines its own priorities and visions of development (as opposed to exogenous) No universal path to development - Self reliant, each society depends primarily on its own human as well as natural resources - From the Bottom Up: enabling people to articulate and achieve their goals rather, than simply providing them with aid - Ecologically sustainable, purses development with a full awareness of ecosystem carrying capacity and the limits to growth. NGOs and development - Potential Roles of NGOs in Development - Emergency assistance and relief: stopgap measure (service provider) - Institution-building strengthening the poor’s capacity to make demands for themselves (facilitator of development) - NGOs view themselves as enables of the poor, empowering them to achieve own goals through development but are frequently service providers without the transition to autonomy, also bad reputation as arrogantly telling the poor how to do things or doing things for them. Strength of NGOs - Political autonomy - Strong grassroots links - Participatory methodologies and tools - Ability to innovate and adopt - Cost effectiveness Weakness of NGOs - Dependence on foreign funding - Corruption/self-serving - Small-scale interventions - Community dependence - Problem of accountability - Inadequate evaluation Debate- NGOs-progressive force for change or tool of neoliberalism? NGOs fill role of social service previously taken an by state, NGOs forwarding, market-led options Additional relevant concepts - NGOs and the state - NGOs and the Market - How to address funding shortness? - Social enterprise - Microcredit Debt Crisis - In 1982, Mexico announced it would not be able to make the interest payments on its foreign debt causing international banks to place a moratorium on new landing to the Global South and to recall existing loans. - Situations worsened, by 1983, 27 countries had rescheduled $239 Billion of debt or were doing so. - M
More Less

Related notes for POLB90H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.