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B90 Midterm Prep.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Political Science
R Rice

NOTES - ForeignAid (Source)  Relief: it is used directly to feed the hungry or to supply the basic needs of the poorest  Private Sector: provides loans and investments (equity capital) to the third world  Equity: foreign investors buy an asset in the third world -> foreign investors own a piece of the third world economy -> “multinational corporations”  Criticism: private sectors tend to dominate and distort the countries in which they operate, imposing their own standards and displacing the local ones; they may actually drain capital out of the third world when sending their profits they have earned DEFINITIONS Mainstream View of Development - The existence of „underdeveloped‟states is seen as a problem that needs to be solved - Development as significant and measurable economic growth and the emergence of modern social, economic and political institutions (e.g. World Bank). This view focuses on the economic and is often associated with industrialization and westernization. Human-Rights View of Development -Achieve a positive transformation of power relations among the various development actors - Blurs the distinction between human rights and development - Development as the satisfaction of various dimensions of human needs, including: low levels of material poverty; low levels of unemployment; relative equality; democratization of political life; true national independence; good literacy and educational levels; relatively equal status for women; environmental sustainability; human security (e.g.Amartya Sen) - The vision here is that people and communities should be empowered to develop themselves. If so, then it follows that they will do so in distinctively different ways. The implication of this definition of development is that there is no universal, homogenous state of society that everyone is striving for Radical View of Development - Development as a façade(표면, 허물) for continued global domination by the North - The implication of this perspective is that development is simply a label for the(폭력under 을 써서 남의 것을 억지로 빼앗다) of the countries of the North for access to cheap labour and natural resources Marshall Plan - 1940s~60s, many believed that the clue to economic development was capital formation; the apparent lesson of postwar European reconstruction - Economists believed that countries were poor because their people were working with primitive equipment - After WW2, America provided foreign aid to support European economy through the Marshall Plan for rebuilding the factories - With help from international cooperation and foreign aid, they constructed capital goods- factories and machines- and Europe recovered Promises of Development (Broken Promises) - The promises of technology, material comfort, democracy, human rights, fairness, basic respect, and decency have not been fulfilled in much of the world - Two major promises have been violated  The promise made by the leaders of the nationalist independence movements and the revolutions in the third world. They have promised that the people‟s labour would be used for their own progress, not for the enrichment of foreigners. The goal of an end to poverty not only has been met intermittently, it was being waylaid as the new political elites have entrenched their positions of privilege  The promise made by leaders of the rich countries. After WW2, the international institutions that the rich countries had established, especially the World Bank began to pay serious attention to the plight of the poor countries. Promises were made that the rich would work together with the poor for economic development. However, the gap that divides the rich countries from the poor is still large. The wars on behalf of national security, the economic policies, the immigration restrictions, and the many other ways in which the countries of the North make the struggles of the world‟s poor people harder, not easier. In essence, the rich countries have reneged on their promises to the poor - Although many individuals act in good faith, their countries largely reject their responsibilities to people outside their borders Legacies of Colonialism - Poverty and underdevelopment: due to the loss and natural resources and the creation of economic dependency - Mono-export economies  they sell raw material costly manufactured products - Loss of language and culture: due to the introduction of western education and the Christian religion - Death and displacement: due to the slave trade and at the hands of European weapons and diseases - Inequality: due to unequal access to land and employment as a result of racism and discrimination - Conflict: due to the artificial drawing of state boundaries Third World - a notion that was first used in the late 1950s to define both the underdeveloped world and the political and economic project that would help overcome underdevelopment: employed less in the post-cold war era - It is originated from to the largest portion of the globe‟s people dates in the 1950s in France. It started as a pun, based on the terms used to describe the three social classes that had political authority in the ancient regime of prerevolutionary France, including the clergy, nobility and lastly the third estate known as the commercial class. The third estate, which had no political power, later became the banner of the hungry and the oppressed. The term calls for changes, for an extension of liberty and equality to those who does not have it. It implies an opposition between the poor and the rich, and it also connotes hope. As the twenty-first century began, most of the people of Asia, the Middle East, Africa, and Latin America have not drawn near to the people of the rich countries in terms of either standard of living or political power. - Political Characteristics:  Politics and gov‟t are shaped by scarcity, inequality and a weak position in the international system  The political legitimacy(정치적 합법성) of many states is very weak  The power of gov‟t is often very limited Development as Colonialism - Development as Colonialism Thesis: suggests a striking continuity between the colonial era and the era of development; e.g. No attempt to re-draw national borders; no attempt to restore pre-colonial cultural patterns; no attempt to restore pre-colonial land use patterns - We need to view at multiple views and problems and solutions according to many differing ideas. Asolution to one problem lying on the development may conflict to another problem - Is it even possible to restore? What would be the “cost” of restoration? Would it truly benefit underdeveloped countries if their land, culture, etc. were restored to the condition of pre-colonialism? Neocolonialism - The process by which rich, powerful states use economic, political or other informal means to exert pressure on poor, less powerful states - The difference b/w neocolonialism and classical colonialism: (a) there is no official acknowledgement of colonial ties (neocolonialism is rather indirect), (b) the influence is exercised through interaction of the dominant nation‟s banking , business and military leaders with the third world elites (the co-operation with the third world elites, the partnership, with the shared common goals) - Characteristics of the neocolonial relationship: (a) cultural domination: a subtle message of western cultural superiority is transmitted through media, (b) political domination: Northern intervention in the political affairs of the South, (c) economic domination: occurs as part of the dominant country‟s formal policy or as a result of private business activities, (d) military domination: occurs th
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