The Globalized War Economy (1).docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Political Science
David Perley

Introduction - War economy: system that is centralized, totalizing, autarchic (economic independence as national policy) - Old wars: characterized by confrontation b/w different states, mobilized factors into fighting enemy, new wars are low social participation or harnessing of economic power, low-tech weapons (hand- held) - New wars  “globalized” war o Fragmentation and decentralization of state o Low participation  lack of pay/legitimacy from warring parties o Little domestic production  war effort dependent on local predation and external support o Battles  rare, most violent towards civilians, cooperation between warring factions o Conflicts within states due to fragmentation of power and internal power emergence The Private Military Forces - War economies emerge - Civil conflicts may start initially as grievances based conflict, as actors and movement and rebel groups fight state, search for revenue, motivation switches into accumulation of resources and solving of grievance second - Why? Actors war is less costly and more of venture in which make profit - Therefore civil conflicts become search for resources (local – blockades, national –diamond mines) - Multiplicity of fighting units both public and private, state/non-state, mixture o 5 main types  (Remnants) Regular armed forces  In decay, particularly in conflict areas  Loss of moral resulting from cuts in military spending, declining prestige, shortages of equipment, spare parts, fuel and ammunition, inadequate training  Paramilitary (function and organization similar to professional military but not part of state) groups  Self-defense units  Foreign mercenaries  Regular foreign troops - Paramilitary groups associated with particular extremists parties of political factions - Soldiers (Africa, post-Soviet) receive no training or regular pay o Finding own sources of funding contributes to indiscipline and military hierarchy breakdown  Leads to fragmentation  local army commanders act as local warlords  Soldiers in criminal behaviour  regular armed forces lose character as legitimate bearers of arms and difficult to distinguish from private paramilitary groups - Weapons surplus at end of Cold War o Lead to paramilitary, corruption Patterns of Violence - Revolutionary warfare – new weapons o Objective: control of territory through support of local population rather than capturing territory from enemy forces - Avoidance of battle, violence towards civilians, population displacement o Techniques of population displacement 1. Systematic murder of those with different labels 2. Ethnic cleansing (forcible expulsion) 3. Rendering
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