polb90 terms and signif.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Political Science
Judith Teichman

Franz Fanon • Define o Franz Fanon (1925-1961) was a black, Martinique born psychiatrist who joined the Algerian struggle for independence from France. He wrote The Wretched of the Earth and Black Skin White Masks, his work inspired postcolonial thought along with many liberation struggles. He wrote about the psychological and cultural effects of colonialism on the colonized population and the notion that colonized people were not weighed down just by conquest, military and economic control, but that European ways were imposed on them (through language, social structure etc.) Imperial thought of European supremacy caused engendered inferiority of the colonized cultures. Indigenous elites could be seen as hybrids because they were mostly European educated and had adopted European thinking in terms of development as western industrial progress. He writes about the native intellectual and critiques their representation of pre-colonial cultures. He is critical of this because he feels nothing about pre-colonial history resonates with everyday people and thus wont help today’s problems. He feels the only way to shake the impact of colonialism is through violent revolution to rid the country of colonial rule. He feels that developing countries cultures should be based on their current struggle against colonial power, not their pre-colonial history. (A critique to be noted is that elites that came to power after violent revolutions tended to be quite dangerous). • Significance o The significance of Fanons writings is to understand the psychological and cultural impact of colonialism on indigenous populations. Colonialism is destructive to the esteem and culture of colonized regions and the effects are long term and engendered in thinking. His notion about native intellectuals is evidence of this and legacies of colonialism can be seen through the way that colonized were governed after gaining independence—many were western educated and thus favored the western industrial model of development and neoliberal thinking further subjecting these regions to dependence on industrialized nations in favour of the market. Meroe Empire • Define o The Meroe Empire was located in modern day Sudan in 8th century BC. It was pre-colonial society with significant technological advances; a 23-character alphabet, worked in iron, metallurgy and had sophisticated trade routes. The features of pre-colonial societies were complex administrative structures; needed to organize workers (trade, agriculture, irrigation), skill and competence counted (not just born into hierarchical positions), provision of basic needs (sharing and obligation, no concept of private property) and imperialism. • Significance o The significance is that is disproves narratives that Africa was a primitive and backwards culture prior to European conquest. Zamindars • Define o Zamindars were Indian tax collectors under the British Raj of India as a form of colonial collaboration. The East India Company was required to pay the British government a large sum so they taxed locals heavily through the creation of a stratum of Indian collaborators. Zamindars had the authority to confiscate land if people didn’t pay taxes, which were very heavy and had to be paid regardless of crop yield etc. In return for their cooperation with the British, they accumulated huge amounts of wealth. • Significance o Zamindars are key players in the success of British imperialism through indirect rule, which held local leaders accountable to the colonial ruler but still were regarded as being in power by the local populations. This caused fewer disturbances to the status quo and legitimized colonial rule. However, it should be noted that through heavy taxation, greater social divides were created and this can be looked at through the view of Fanon—Zamindars (and other local elites) would have stronger invested interests with the British (colonizers) because of the wealth they made through collaboration where the general population would be falling into deeper poverty due to high taxation. Elites would likely become western educated and the thinking of the colonized elites would be influenced by European ways. Indirect Rule • Define o Indirect rule is a form of European rule through local institutions, leaders and customary laws and is the most effective type of rule. Indirect rule utilizes local leaders to preform tasks such a collecting taxes, adjudicating cases and imposing punishments making the local leader accountable to the colonial ruler. Indirect rule causes the least disturbance to the status quo, legitimized colonial rule and deflected discontent. • Significance o Indirect rule is more effective than direct rule because in direct rule, it is less apparent who is ruling, it produces more violent opposition to colonialism and is more destructive to local culture. PRSP (Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers) • Define o Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) contain an assessment of poverty and describe the macroeconomic, structural and social policies that a country will pursue to promote growth and reduce poverty, as well as the needs/sources of financing to implement these policies o IMF and WB looked at global south in the 1990’s and saw what a mess was becoming. They had such large debts that they continued to get poorer and poorer. IMF and WB had idea to get together with poor country governments, civil society organizations and tried to come up with a master plan to get heavily indebted poor countries out of poverty—part of HIPC in effort to eliminate unsustainable debt in the world’s poorest countries. PRSPs were formally endorsed by the WB and IMF in September 1999 as the mechanism for distributing HIPC (highly indebted poor countries debt relief) funds and as a basis for IFI (international foreign investment) concessional lending. o IMF outlined five core principles • Country driven—country ownership of strategy cumulated through broad based participation of civil society • Result oriented—focusing on outcomes that will benefit the poor • Comprehensive—in exploring and understanding the multidimensional nature of poverty • Partnership oriented—involving development partners ie. Government, domestic stakeholders and external donors • Long term perspective geared towards reducing poverty • Significance o PRSP approach was developed out of best practice on how to tackle poverty and includes some innovative practices, most significantly the requirement that the PRSP must be nationally owned and drawn up in consultation with national stakeholders. This opening up of policy process to new forms of participation resulted, in practice, in a variety of consultation processes with CSOs—usually NGO’s—as the main non- governmental actors during the formulation phase of the full PRSP. o Critiques of participation process—rushed time table, poor information sharing, superficial consultation and lack of clarity from government on the consultation process and its objective. o Tanzania PRSP 2011 • Conditions—agreed to watch over fiscal debt, advocate an export drive, create and ‘enabling’ business environment. • Had to promote domestic and foreign investment and improve infrastructure (good) • Had to promote domestic and international investment in mining and promote EPZs (worrisome) Labour Flexibilization • Define o Labour Flexibili
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