o Franz Fanon (1925-1961) was a black, Martinique born psychiatrist
who joined the Algerian struggle for independence from France. He wrote
The Wretched of the Earth and Black Skin White Masks, his work inspired
postcolonial thought along with many liberation struggles. He wrote about
the psychological and cultural effects of colonialism on the colonized
population and the notion that colonized people were not weighed down
just by conquest, military and economic control, but that European ways
were imposed on them (through language, social structure etc.) Imperial
thought of European supremacy caused engendered inferiority of the
colonized cultures. Indigenous elites could be seen as hybrids because
they were mostly European educated and had adopted European thinking
in terms of development as western industrial progress. He writes about
the native intellectual and critiques their representation of pre-colonial
cultures. He is critical of this because he feels nothing about pre-colonial
history resonates with everyday people and thus wont help today’s
problems. He feels the only way to shake the impact of colonialism is
through violent revolution to rid the country of colonial rule. He feels that
developing countries cultures should be based on their current struggle
against colonial power, not their pre-colonial history. (A critique to be noted
is that elites that came to power after violent revolutions tended to be quite
o The significance of Fanons writings is to understand the
psychological and cultural impact of colonialism on indigenous populations.
Colonialism is destructive to the esteem and culture of colonized regions
and the effects are long term and engendered in thinking. His notion about
native intellectuals is evidence of this and legacies of colonialism can be
seen through the way that colonized were governed after gaining
independence—many were western educated and thus favored the
western industrial model of development and neoliberal thinking further
subjecting these regions to dependence on industrialized nations in favour
of the market.
o The Meroe Empire was located in modern day Sudan in 8th century
BC. It was pre-colonial society with significant technological advances; a
23-character alphabet, worked in iron, metallurgy and had sophisticated
trade routes. The features of pre-colonial societies were complex
administrative structures; needed to organize workers (trade, agriculture,
irrigation), skill and competence counted (not just born into hierarchical
positions), provision of basic needs (sharing and obligation, no concept of private property) and imperialism.
o The significance is that is disproves narratives that Africa was a
primitive and backwards culture prior to European conquest.
o Zamindars were Indian tax collectors under the British Raj of India
as a form of colonial collaboration. The East India Company was required
to pay the British government a large sum so they taxed locals heavily
through the creation of a stratum of Indian collaborators. Zamindars had
the authority to confiscate land if people didn’t pay taxes, which were very
heavy and had to be paid regardless of crop yield etc. In return for their
cooperation with the British, they accumulated huge amounts of wealth.
o Zamindars are key players in the success of British imperialism
through indirect rule, which held local leaders accountable to the colonial
ruler but still were regarded as being in power by the local populations.
This caused fewer disturbances to the status quo and legitimized colonial
rule. However, it should be noted that through heavy taxation, greater
social divides were created and this can be looked at through the view of
Fanon—Zamindars (and other local elites) would have stronger invested
interests with the British (colonizers) because of the wealth they made
through collaboration where the general population would be falling into
deeper poverty due to high taxation. Elites would likely become western
educated and the thinking of the colonized elites would be influenced by
o Indirect rule is a form of European rule through local institutions,
leaders and customary laws and is the most effective type of rule. Indirect
rule utilizes local leaders to preform tasks such a collecting taxes,
adjudicating cases and imposing punishments making the local leader
accountable to the colonial ruler. Indirect rule causes the least disturbance
to the status quo, legitimized colonial rule and deflected discontent.
o Indirect rule is more effective than direct rule because in direct rule,
it is less apparent who is ruling, it produces more violent opposition to
colonialism and is more destructive to local culture.
PRSP (Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers)
o Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) contain an assessment
of poverty and describe the macroeconomic, structural and social policies
that a country will pursue to promote growth and reduce poverty, as well as the needs/sources of financing to implement these policies
o IMF and WB looked at global south in the 1990’s and saw what a
mess was becoming. They had such large debts that they continued to get
poorer and poorer. IMF and WB had idea to get together with poor country
governments, civil society organizations and tried to come up with a master
plan to get heavily indebted poor countries out of poverty—part of HIPC in
effort to eliminate unsustainable debt in the world’s poorest countries.
PRSPs were formally endorsed by the WB and IMF in September 1999 as
the mechanism for distributing HIPC (highly indebted poor countries debt
relief) funds and as a basis for IFI (international foreign investment)
o IMF outlined five core principles
• Country driven—country ownership of strategy cumulated through
broad based participation of civil society
• Result oriented—focusing on outcomes that will benefit the poor
• Comprehensive—in exploring and understanding the
multidimensional nature of poverty
• Partnership oriented—involving development partners ie.
Government, domestic stakeholders and external donors
• Long term perspective geared towards reducing poverty
o PRSP approach was developed out of best practice on how to tackle
poverty and includes some innovative practices, most significantly the
requirement that the PRSP must be nationally owned and drawn up in
consultation with national stakeholders. This opening up of policy process
to new forms of participation resulted, in practice, in a variety of
consultation processes with CSOs—usually NGO’s—as the main non-
governmental actors during the formulation phase of the full PRSP.
o Critiques of participation process—rushed time table, poor
information sharing, superficial consultation and lack of clarity from
government on the consultation process and its objective.
o Tanzania PRSP 2011
• Conditions—agreed to watch over fiscal debt, advocate an export
drive, create and ‘enabling’ business environment.
• Had to promote domestic and foreign investment and improve
• Had to promote domestic and international investment in mining and
promote EPZs (worrisome)
o Labour Flexibili