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POLB90; MIDTERMF12 notes.docx

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Political Science
R Rice

POLB90; MIDTERM FALL2012 POTENTIAL ESSAY QUESTIONS Why isn’t the whole world developed? What are some of the main factors you think are central to explaining underdeveloped and why? The whole world isn’t developed equally for several reasons. Different parts of the world have different kinds of land, which may or may not be fertile and that would limit the kind of resources they would have to make a profit, etc. There are also countries that may be land locked and some that are near the bodies of water, which makes it easier for them to transport their products to other countries or areas, and also to travel to other countries to discuss their different business ideas. Their infrastructure must be developed and maintained for this to happen. There are also different cultures and traditions that may have taught them what they should or should not do since the beginning. That might not have showed people how to develop in the community, society, etc. They also do not get the education they may need to know about the different ways of life, and would be isolated from the rest of the world. Political corruption must be eliminated so that the rich will no longer be able to take advantage of the poor and allow them to develop and grow. Education must also be made available for all citizens so that they will be able to read and write. They will also be able to learn things that are not traditional so that they will be able to do business with other countries or communities to free their market and expand on their imports and exports. Inequality must also be reduced so that everyone will have a fair opportunity to do what he or she does best in whatever field they choose to be in. Also so that different genders will also be able to go to school and will not be taken advantage of by the public since it may be considered a ‘norm’ for females to stay at home and take care of everything there Are the MDGs an effective way of combating global poverty? Why or why not? They are effective in certain aspects, but also ineffective in others. There are 8 goals; to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, to achieve universal primary education, promote gender equality (empower women), reduce child mortality, improve maternal health, combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases, ensure environmental sustainability, and develop a global partnership for developments. With so many goals to try to achieve, it makes it difficult to ensure that all of them are being fulfilled. They are achievable in the sense that each goal is linked and reinforcing, international cooperation is being aligned with MDG priorities, concrete goals that can be monitored regarding how well the progress is going, and they can also see what they can be doing to change their methods if it is too slow. It doesn’t work because it is very grand, like mentioned previously, because there are too many different goals to try to fulfil and they are too short sighted. It also involved the geopolitics of the country; because there are things that you cant do, like changing how the environment of the country is. There is also not enough incentive resource flows because the other countries wont provide all of the monetary funds that they may need for the multiple projects that the MDG had defined as their goals. Is foreign aid helpful or harmful to development in the global south? Explain. It is both helpful and harmful to the development in the global south, depending on how the aid is used or distributed. Of course it would work well because it reduces poverty, or it has the intentions to do so. It would also improve foreign relations because it creates interactions with different countries, and if the donor country sees that there are chances of great development for the country, then they may keep an eye on them for future partnerships. It would also promote economic growth because of that. If they are given monetary funds, and its given to the government, then there is no guarantee that the money will be used toward those that need it, and how it will be used because the money may not be monitored after it being handed over to the government. If the assistance is given in the form of services, and building on the infrastructure of the community, then it will be helpful because the results of I can be measured through the progress of the development of public buildings like schools and hospitals, and also through literacy levels increasing, and etc. This will also in turn increase their human development index and their standard of living. The assistance can also be used to improve their living environments, like helping citizens get out of both extreme poverty as well as chronic poverty. Sometimes, unfortunately, aid and growth have no connection with one another. They may have different kinds of poverty, like extreme or chronic, and it may not be fixed with the aid instantly, and may take a lot of time for it to improve to be able to start to develop. With the foreign aids that are given to the global south, there may also be cultural domination, because since the first world countries my feel that their way of life is ideal, and is what is considered to be ‘developed,’ they will impose their cultures into the country and try to get them to assimilate to the cultures and traditions of theirs with will insinuate the melting pot theory. SHORT ANSWER TOPICS Mainstream View of Development It is the conventional view, and it believes that with income, comes all the solutions to all problems. The Mainstream view sees development as significant and measureable economic growth and the emergence of social, economic and political institutions. This can be signified with institutions like banks. Some weaknesses include a lack of environmental maintenance and a disregard for traditions and cultures With this view of development, there is an implication that development is industrialization and westernization. Human Rights View of Development This is an alternative view. They see development as the satisfaction of various dimensions of human needs. This focuses on democracy, human rights and relative equality. This may limit the economic development This may be an over optimistic view that all countries can follow this formal and still benefit from the same results, but there is no universal homogenous state of society that all countries want. Radical View of Development People believe that development is a façade for continued global domination by the North. With that being said, development is believed to be a hoax, and that it is just a measure to establish and maintain a level of control over developing countries. This can be defied as a political and economic survival of the fittest. There has to be a socialist state created in every third world country, which would require the elimination of all forms of capitalism via the removal of multinational corporations form these nations. It is an attractive approach for developing countries, as it did not cause any losses. This shows that development is a self-interested project Marshall Plan This was considered to be the primary plan of the United States in regards to rebuilding Europe and repelling communism after WWII. The Marshall Plan provided American foreign aid to European countries to help rebuild factories. In the 1950’s, many people thought that this experience could guide third world development. Many believed that funds would fix the problems of third world countries. After decades of experience with foreign a
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