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POLB90; possible midterm q&a.docx

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Political Science
R Rice

POLB90 Possible exam questions: LEC1 What are the three major views on development? Conventional View (Mainstream) Human-Rights View (Alternative) Post-Development View (Radical) What does the concept of development mean according to each of these views? Conventional View (Mainstream) As significant and measureable economic growth and the emergence of modern social, economic and political institutions Human-Rights View (Alternative) As the satisfaction of various dimensions of human needs, including low levels of material poverty, low levels of unemployment, relative equality, democratization of political life, true national independence, good literacy and education levels, relatively equal status for money, environmental sustainability, and human security Post-Development View (Radical) As a façade for continued global domination by the north Which do you agree with and why? I agree with the conventional view for several reasons. Most of the time, when someone mentions development, there is comparison to North America, and western Europe, which is considered to be the term ‘westernization’. Even in Canada, we are being influenced by the USA greatly, which indicates that they are very influential even in a well- established and developed country. With it being measurable, it can show other countries how developed the countries are and how far along they are in their developments in comparison to other countries. LEC2 Is the term ‘third world’ still relevant? Why or why not? It is not as relevant as it used to be because the terms that are used now are more specific in terms of what stage they are developed, like underdeveloped, developing, emerging, and so on. Why isn’t the whole world developed? What are some of the main factors you think are central to explaining underdeveloped and why? The whole world isn’t developed equally for several reasons. Different parts of the world have different kinds of land, which may or may not be fertile and that would limit the kind of resources they would have to make a profit, etc. There are also countries that may be land locked and some that are near the bodies of water, which makes it easier for them to transport their products to other countries or areas, and also to travel to other countries to discuss their different business ideas. Their infrastructure must be developed and maintained for this to happen. There are also different cultures and traditions that may have taught them what they should or should not do since the beginning. That might not have showed people how to develop in the community, society, etc. They also do not get the education they may need to know about the different ways of life, and would be isolated from the rest of the world. Political corruption must be eliminated so that the rich will no longer take advantage of the poor and allow them to develop and grow. Education must also be made available for all citizens so that they will be able to read and write. They will also be able to learn things that are not traditional so that they will be able to do business with other countries or communities to free their market and expand on their imports and exports. Inequality must also be reduced so that everyone will have a fair opportunity to do what they do best in whatever field they choose to be in. Also so that different genders will also be able to go to school and will not be taken advantage of by the public since it may be considered a ‘norm.’ Factors: The values of the leaders and citizens May be different from people in the developed countries May facilitate or impede the progress of developing. Natural resources and Natural disasters An abundance of natural resources are sometimes called a curse May be targeted by the developed to exploit them Poor management, corruption and more instability Natural disasters can ruin crops and will weaken the economy even further and can kill citizens No resources to deal with the disasters and the effects of it International economic environment Can undermine the government policy autonomy in the south Can boost or undermine economic progress Population Excess population undermines development gains Overpopulated countries are less developed 33 people a minute Education and health care Essential ingredients for economic development Political instability Leads to brain drain as best citizens leave the country Lack of foreign investment Destroys public works Corruption Drains resources away from public investment Makes everything more expensive External debt Deprives countries of money that could have been used for development purposes Interest on loans changes their GDP What are the two central promises of development that had been betrayed and by whom? Made by the leaders of the nationalist independence movements and the revolutions in the third world The people’s labour would now be used for their own progress, not for the enrichment of foreigners. Promises were made that the rich would work together with the poor for economic development. No one captured and helped create this spirit better than Kennedy; he addressed it in his inaugural speech LEC3 What are some of the legacies of colonialism for countries of the South? Poverty and underdevelopment Due to the loss of natural resources and creation of economic dependency Loss of language/ culture Due to the introduction of western education and Christian religion Death/ dispute Due to the slave trades and at the hands of European weapons and diseases Inequality Due to the unequal access to land and employment as a result of racism and discrimination Macro/ mini land arrangement Conflict Due to the artificial drawing of state boundaries Outline the development as colonialism thesis. Do you agree? Why or why not? Suggests a striking continuity between the colonial era and the era of development; e.g. no attempt to re-draw national borders, no attempt to restore pre-colonial cultural patterns, no attempt to restore pre-colonial land patterns. I agree because I believe this ties along with the development/ westernization of the country. When there is no one trying to preserve their old traditions and cultures, then there is no incentive for them not to colonize. There are also more benefits in colonizing especially when expansions are occurring; they will also want to expand as well to ensure their powers. What are the major differences between colonialism and neo-colonialism? There is no official acknowledgement of colonial ties Influence is exercised through the interaction of the dominant nations banking, business and military leaders with third world elites LEC4 Es
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