What is clientalism and how does it impact upon development outcomes?
Clientaism is the dispensing of public resources by political power holders and seekers who offer them
as favors in exchange for votes or other forms of public support. It can also be based on kinship,
patronage, and material or immaterial inducements/attachments. It’s important in development impact
because it leads to corruption, preferential treatment, inequality, and reinforces status quo. It
undermines authentic development, its development by accident not design; it divides community
members because they are fighting with elites for these scarce resources. An example of clientalism is in
the Philippines, where cotes are bought by leading political parties and led to instability.
What is the relationship between the state and the interest groups under the three systems of
interest group representation?
Under state corporatism, states use interest groups structures to control and dominate citizen groups
and interest they are allowed to voice. State is the dominant actor, interest groups are consulted only to
gain to their compliance, appear to legitimize the state, a form of control.
Clientalism is the dispensing of public resources by political power holders who offer them a favor in
exchange for votes or other forms of public support. Leads to corruption inequality etc.
Caudillismo- organizations of political life by bosses, undermines central government policies.
The three C’s sere to exclude the marginalized from meaningful political participation and benefit
What factors influence the likelihood of military interventions in third world politics?
Military intervention is likely in weak political systems and is characterized by instability. (Regime
weakens institutions, need strong states, regimes that can stand revolutions).
a) Political institutions
a. When civilian governments enjoy widespread support and legitimacy, military
intervention is unlikely
b. Governments are responding to civilian concerns
b) Political culture
a. Societies which believe that democracy should be the only game in town are less likely
to tolerate military coups
b. Strong public support, eg, india-stable democracy despite poverty that would never
allow army to set up
c) Level of development
a. Poorer countries are more likely to suffer from military takeovers
What explains the success of some military regimes in developing their outcomes?
Military regimes can establish stability because it is equipped to crush rebellion and demonstrations,
very effective at controlling civil unrest for short term. They can also promote economic development,
easy economic decision which are consistent with the national interest.
What are possible political consequences in rising crime rates in global south?
The possible political consequences in rising crime rates in global south can be tough punishments for
minor infractions and hard-line policing, without civilian oversight. Also known as the Zero-Tolerance
policing. The policy imposes automatic punishments for infractions of a stated rule, with the intention of
eliminating undesirable conduct. The policy forbids subjectivity in determining punishments of a crime, and persons in power are not allowed to consider factors such as individual culpability, extenuating
circumstances or past history, and are required to impose a standard punishment for a crime. This form
of policing is often implemented by military governments in response to citizens ‘concerns that
democratically elected governments are ineffective at dealing with the very high levels of crime that
plague the global south. Examples of zero-tolerance policing, and the grave abuses of human rights that
accompany them, are outlined in the Ungar reading.
The reading cites the growing insecurity of citizens, as cited by police impunity, and record street
violence in Caracas, Venezuela and la Paz, Bolivia. The reading argues that zero-tolerance policing,
instead of curbing crime, has actually increased it because civilian controls are reduced, and the police
who have much more power under the policy, are more likely to participate in crime themselves,
thereby threatening democracy itself.
What are the two main types of power arrangements that characterize the state?
Despotic and infrastructural power
Despotic power: is the power to control and suppress society. It mostly occurs in the global south and its
control is usually under one ruling power, decision are taken without routine and civil society is
suppressed. It roots in the colonial area, where state borders and institutions were imposed by colonial
rulers. Challenges to power were put down by ruling forces. The power structure of colonial states
resemble despotic power where it was entrenched by the ruling elites and those under the rule had very
little human and economic rights.
Example- Tunisia which was ruled by autocratic leader for 20 years, North Korea and Egypt were ruled
by dictators for 30 years.
Infrastructural Power: is the capacity of the state to penetrate civil society and use this penetration to
enforce policy throughout its entire territory. Its usually found in the global north and has the power to
administer and transform. It is power through society not over society. It can provide services
throughout its entire territorial space, which decreases its likelihood of becoming weak or failed.
Authoritarian states combine both powers to allow maximum influence over social life.
What are revolutions and why do they have such appeal in countries in the global south?
Revolution is a violent government overthrow accompanied by massive class up heals or any insurgency
that brings about social, political and economic changes. They can be violent because it is not just a
change of political leaders, but a shift of political and economic powers. The appeal of revolutions is that
they promise rapid geocernmental change, and that they are a means of endin