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Political Science
R Rice

POLB91H3S Comparative Development in Political Perspective – Study Guide for the Final Exam Ethnic Conflict  Little to do with ancient hatred, more complex  Causes: o Colonial legacies: European colonization set the stage for ethnic conflict. Some formed countries based on artificial boundaries, pit ethnic groups against one another by dubbing one of them an elite minority, disrupting the balance of equilibrium o Political mobilization: Conflict is created by leaders in order to gain support for their own political, economic and social agenda o Competition for scarce resources: When there is not a lot to go around, people are forced to fight for it o Economic modernization: Creates “winners” and “losers” sometimes along ethnic lines. One tends to be weaker and thus loses out o Weak political institutions: The inability of political institutions to effectively manage differences, thus resulting in violence o Transition to Democracy: Major change in the status quo  Consequences of Conflict: o Huge human casualties o Economic: “Brain drain”, the valuable educated members of society will leave the country at the first sign of problems, reducing the country’s capacity for development as well as agriculture, industry, foreign investment etc o Neighbouring countries will be affected: Refugee flow increases, tension is created in other countries o Famine: Conflict often results in burnt crops, etc o Destruction of environment o Drug Trade Conflict Resolution  Constitutional Design and Power Sharing: Institutional arrangements that divide political power among different ethnic groups A) Federalism – The primary form of power sharing, divides power between the central government, provinces and states B) Consociationalism – A division of political power between formerly antagonistic groups based on limited autonomy and mutual vetoes. Designed to protect the rights of all participants  Secession: Separation of an ethnic group in order to form a new country  Peacekeeping/Outside Intervention: Involvement of international forces in domestic affairs  Reconcilitation: Truth commissions or war crimes trials in order to establish accountability and rebuild social truth (ie: Dec 2008, former senior defense official from Rwanda was convicted to life in prison Rwandan Genocide 1  Triggered in April 1994, Rwandan president (Hutu) dies, conflict breaks out between the Tutsi and Hutu people, a huge massacre occurs, 800 000 people are killed in three weeks, exceeding the numbers of the holocaust  Causes: o Colonial racial myths instill by the Belgians (Tutsi people have better features, dub them the “elite” and more fit to rule) o Deliberate manipulation of ethnic tension by governments o Economic strife, restructuring of economy (population was based on staple cash crops  Internationally, three months passed and the conflict was not being called a genocide, due to the Somalian effect in 1993. Social Cleavages  Known as the “fault lines” of democratic party systems  They are the socio-political divisions within a society, which political parties organize around  Creates political identifies and forms divisions in society that emphasize and politicize, thus creating change  They Include: o Class: Social distinctions that reflect the division of society according to income and social position o Ethnic: Party systems with an ethnic cleavage structure tend to have numerous parties that represent particular ethnicities or languages o Religious: Parties with religious affiliation o Regional: The division of society along geographic lines  ie: Ecuador: highland area, coastal, etc Religious Fundamentalism  Favours close connection between church and state  Movements of religiously inspired response to aspects of global procedures of modernization including the struggle to assert or reassert the norms or beliefs of traditional religion in the public order  Radical Fundamentalists: feel they are conducting a holy war against forces that are threatening to corrupt their religious values (Osama Bin Laden, Afghanistan’s Taliban Government)  Conservative Fundamentalists: wish to shield their religion from outside influences but do not view members of other religions as enemies Religious Based Conflict  Because Religion involves deeply felt values, it has often been the source of domestic bitterness  Influenced by: o The extent to which a religious community feels dominated by another o The degree to which a religion believes that it is the one true faith and that alternative theologies are unacceptable  State policies are key 2  Ie: Saudi Arabia’s royal family produced many changes in a controlled style of modernization and maintained close links of Islam and the state Religion and Development Women in Development (WID)  Income generating projects for women  Features: o Calls for greater attention to woman in order to address their issues o Emphasized the need to integrate woman into the development process o Relies on development projects that enhance women’s “traditional skills Gender and Development (GAD)  Features: o Focuses on the socially constructed relations between man and woman o Emphasized the need to challenge existing gender roles and relations Women, Culture and Development (WCD)  Features o Links the fields of feminist studies, cultural studies, critical development studies o Highlights the multiple forms of oppression that woman in the global south face (ie: gender, race, class) o Emphasized the agency of women Subordination of Woman  Situation whereby men as a group have more social and economic power than women, including power over women  Structures of Subordination: o Property relation (right to own land) o Legal system (inheritance laws, divorce laws) o Divisions of labour (types of jobs) o Access to services (education, health care) o Power structure within the home (decision making, status) Triple Workload of Women  In addition to earning an running the household, women are required to supplement the social services that the government cannot or will not provide (ie: health care, caring for sick friends or family members) Democracy and Gender Equality  Non-democratic governments have often times done a better job of promoting women’s rights than the democratic counterpart  Many revolutionary regimes (though neither radical nor particularly committed to women’s rights) have implemented quotas for female participation in legislature, improved legal status and banned oppressive traditional customs 3  Revolutionary governments like China, Cuba and Mozambique have advanced the cause more effectively than democratic governments of Brazil, India or the Phillippines  However, in the long run, when paired with social and economic development, democracy advances
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