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All lecture notes, includes questions for midterms, short answers and final exam study guide! Very useful! good luck!

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Political Science
R Rice

LECTURE 1: Domestic Power Structures and Development I. Course Intro. II. State Power III. Development Traps _____________________________________________________________ I. Course Introduction [see syllabus under Course Information on web page] II. State Power A major determinant of development strategies and outcomes is the character of the state, and the domestic power structures and political coalitions underpinning it. Types of State Power: 1. Despotic Power: the power to control and suppress society (Global South) roots in colonial area 2. Infrastructural Power: the power to administer and transform (Global North) Roots of Despotic power- state borders and institutions were imposed by colonial rulers, challengers were put down by brutality weak infrastructure power, strong despotic power (paradox) -purpose of colonial rules, extract resources, setting up infrastructure that supported this goal -the purpose and point of colonial rule was extraction not developmental -the power structure of the colonial state was entrenched by the rolling elites, after independence to protect their own interests III. Development Traps Development Trap: the vicious circle of poverty that prevents a country from developing Colliers Thesis: the real challenge of development is that there is a group of countries at the bottom that are falling behind, and often falling apart (e.g. the bottom billion). SOLUTION: economic growth Policy instruments- aid (targeted) not conditional, aid selectivity (reinforcing positive aspects), military intervention, laws and charters, trade policies Conflict Trap - War makes a country poor, and poverty makes a country prone to war Natural Resources Trap - resource wise, countries with an abundant supply of oil (single valuable natural resources) tend to have lower levels of development (DUTCH Disease) Landlocked with Bad Neighbours Trap - The poorer your neighbours, the more likely youre likely to be poor Bad Governance Trap - Poor governance leads to poor policies and low economic development Midterm questions - 2 main types of power arrangements that characterize the state - How do power structures impact upon a countrys development Lecture 2- POLB91 I. What and How Does Comparative Politics Compare? Comparative Politics is: a) a sub-field within the discipline of political science Behavioralists- scholars that emphasize statistical analysis and universal theories by examining a large number of cases or by using complex mathematical equations Interpretivists- scholars that emphasize an in-depth analysis of politics within a few cases, paying attention to specific country contexts. Area Studies- the detail examination of politics within a specific (e.g. one) geographical setting, not necessarily involving any explicit comparison. MIDTERM: is the field of area studies still relevant for political science/development studies today? Having a keen eye for individual countries but at the same time have the ability to generalize and understand the underlying similarities within several countries. Relating quantitative and qualitative, mid-level theories that have explanatory value when comparing countries together b) a method or approach to the study of politics Most Similar Systems Design- the study of differences across similarities; select 2 or more countries similar in all respects except for the phenomenon being investigated Indigenous Movement Formation Ecuador + Bolivia Both have large indigenous population, weak party systems, both colonized by Spain in south America, weak Marxist left, weak indigenous movement Peru- no indigenous movement, strong Marxists left, strong class identities Most Different Systems Design- the study of similarities across differences; select 2 or more countries different in most respects except for the phenomenon under investigation, challenge: way too many differences to investigate, languages, mass distance Democratic transitions from below- El Salvador and South Africa II. Themes for Comparative Analysis a) Democratization- rapid spread of democracy in the Global South, challenging political science theories and ideas that democracy is only present in certain levels of development. Brazil, Mexico and Nigeria are transitional rather than consolidated democracies. Under these formal institutions there are many informal practices ( faade) that violate formal procedures of democracy, key: to look for the stabilizing and destabilizing consequences of recent democratic transitions and the persistence of undemocratic elements b) The Role of the State- Puzzle: how do states in the developing world deal with the many challenges to this authority that they face from both internal and external forces? Key: Pay attention to the way that states in different countries react to international and domestic pressures c) The Politics of Collective Identity- politics of class politics of language, region, religion, ethnicity and etc, puzzle: how does collective identity affect a countrys distributional politics, that is, the process of deciding who gets what? Key: watch for conditions that lead to political violence III. Concepts for Comparative Analysis 1) Corporatism: a system in which interest groups become an institutionalized part of the political structure 3 Cs; corporatism, clientilism, caudillismo serve to exclude the marginalized from meaningful political participation and the benefits of economic development a) Pluralism- a system in which interest groups organize and compete freely and in which policy outcomes are the result of the groups competing pressures b) Societal Corporatism c) State Corporatism- a state system in which states use interest group structures to control and dominate citizen groups and interests they are allowed to voice State is the dominant actor, interest groups are consulted only to gain to their compliance, appear to legitimize the state, a form of control 2) Clientelism (patron-client networks): the dispensing of public resources by political power holders or seekers who offer them as favours in exchange for votes or other forms of public support. Leads to corruption, breeds preferential treatment, inequality, reinforces the status quo, development by accident not design 3) Caudillismo (strong-man rule): the organization of political life by local bosses whose power and influence derives from personal fortune, family or regional association. Leads to the undermining of central government policies, constraitns the emergence of infrastructural power. Undermining of national economic development IV. Modernization and Dependency Theories Revisited Modernization Theory: proposes that all countries go through similar stages of development, from traditional to modern (read: Western industrialized democracies) Dependency Theory : asserts that economic growth in the advanced capitalist countries created Third World poverty, core nations and periphery nations, 1) what is clientelism and why is it important to development, 2) explain corporatism relation to state and realtion interest in the three systems. 3) Essay question: is the field of area study still relevant to political studies? LECTURE 3: Revolution and Rebellion OUTLINE: I. The Revolutionary Option II. Case Study: Cuba III. Revolutionary Decline IV. The Rise of New Social Movements ________________________________________________________________________ I. The Revolutionary Option Revolution: a non-legal, non-democratic or violent overthrow of government that introduces sweeping changes to a countrys political, economic and social systems. Hard to theorarize a revolution because they are so unlike -One persons revolution is another persons coupe -Marxists saw revolution take place in urban course (capitalist democracies,) but for the most part it has been peasants of the Global South largely a Third World phenomenon carried out by the peasantry, given to the political and economic exclusion and government Revolutionary Appeal- promise of rapid and fundamental change, holds the means of ending colonial or economic dependency, potential solution to poverty and inequality Factors in a Successful Revolution- 1) Regime in power must lose its legitimacy 2) wide-spread dissatisfaction with the regime in power including from portions of the middle class and business community 3) Military and political capabilities of the revolutionary movement must be relatively stronger than that of the regime in power 4) Core of firmly committed activists willing to risk their lives within a larger group of sympathizers Focal Theory: group of small, fast-moving revolutionary can provide a focus for popular discontent against a regime Causes of Revolutions 1. Historical Forces -focuses on changes in the world economic order that make revolution likely (e.g. contradictions in health capitalism) In order to identify their class commonalities to fight the exploitation of the few who handle all the power 2. Regime Decay (MIDTERM TEST?) -focuses on the weaknesses of the outgoing political system and the factors that cause a state to fall to revolutionary forces
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