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Political Science
Lucan Way

POLB93 MIDTERM STUDY NOTES By: Ummema Chutani Structuralism vs. Structural explanations are predictable, impossible for an individual to alter, few possible Voluntarism outcomes. May include: economic development, the nation's culture and/or social structure, political system or position in the international community. Voluntarist explanations include the effects of an action by an individual or an event. They are unpredictable and can have a wide array of outcomes. Dependent and Dependant variable is a situation that is set off by a preceding event. Independent Independent variable is the phenomenon that will have some effect on the dependent Variable variable. It is an event that can occur without prediction. State State is the central apparatus of a political/coercive power in a territory in the form of legal administrative institutions that have the power to legitimately enforce order. Regime Regime is the system of administration. It is the set of rules by which political power is Government allocated. Government is the group of people that are in power at the given time. (e.g. Harper government, Obama administration) procedural vs. Procedural definition includes free and fair elections , adult suffrage (everyone can vote), substantive/radic elected governments real power (no veto by outside power such as military, clerics or drug al vs. minimalist lords), protection of civil liberties (right to criticize government, form independent definitions of associations and free press), and level playing field. Political parties, high participation and democracy accountability not included. Substansive/Radical definition focuses on democracy as an outcome of economic equality, high participation, high accountability. Points to real problems in developed democracies. Combines dimensions like economy and political institutions. Doesn't really exist in the real world. Minimalist definition involves the existence or absence of multi-party elections. Easy to identify, lots of cases. Lumps countries like Uzbekistan and Sweden into groups. Level vs. Incumbent vs. New political party. Incumbent abuses power over the state with its access to media, resources and state institutions thus the oppositions power to organize and be Uneven effective is not as strong. Playing Field Cultural A structural explanation for a regime. Focus on the long-standing values of a populations Approaches → political outcomes affected by those values. Appeal to religion rather than economics or interests. Consider non democratic as it values groups over individuals and emphasis on hierarchical authority. Latin America has a strong church and most of the countries are democratic. Development Another structural explanation of democracy is modernization. Modernization=wealth, and Democracy industrialization, urbanization and education. Wealthy countries tend to be more democratic. Increase in global wealth over time led to greater number of democracies. urbanization and education → Industrialization → Wealthy country. Modernization empowers the population to demand for a democracy. Urban populations are easy to organize and have an access to mass communication. Civil Society Network of powerful, independent, nongovernmental organizations such as trade unions, and the church. Defends rights against the state and promotes democracy. Steven Fish's Mongolia is a democracy that should not have been. It never had the ingredients of interpretation of prerequisites of a democracy. Mongolia was a socialist state under the control of the USSR Mongolian and depended heavily upon USSR aid. Only traded with them. It is also geographically Democracy isolated from the west and has low literacy rate yet it's still a democracy. Perhaps it was leadership? (voluntarist explanation). In demonstrations between anti and pro democracy groups, the democrats won. Constitution a product of compromise. Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party loses election and gives up power to Democratic Coalition. Leadership Leadership explanations are supported by the voluntarist perspective. Democracy is Explanations created by democrats. Presidentialism Institutional design as a voluntarist explanation. Executive directly elected for fixed term. and Democracy Strong constitutional power, control over cabinet Parliamentarism Institutional design as a voluntarist explanation. Parliamentary regimes are more stable and Democracy democracies. Parliament selects executive, no fixed terms, no elected president with serious power. Linz’s Presidentialism undermines democracy? Conflict between president and parliament → interpretation of Instability → Regime Breakdown (slippery slope to dictatorship). President has too much the problems of power → dictatorship. Presidentialism rigid → polarization/high stakes fight for power → presidentialism democratic breakdown Institutional A voluntarist explanation for regime. Presidentialism vs. Parlimentarism Approaches International Structural: Global spread of communication, Increase in communications technology Sources of makes it propaganda harder. Hard to keep western ideas out and internal problems in. Democracy Global balance of power: democratization affected by which states are the global powers. Dominance of democratic global powers leads to more democracies, less funding for autocrats and fewer threats to discourage democratization threats. Autocratic powers impose authoritarian regimes, fund autocrats and threaten security in order to discourage western democratization efforts. Voluntarist: Demonstration effect (snowballing), impact of neighbouring revolutions; encourages opposition, threatens to overthrow dictator. Demonstration effect is voluntarist because it is based on individual perception, it's highly contingent and unpredictable. Helsinki Final Act, 1975 - 1975 Helsinki Accords Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe: Legitimizes Soviet control over Eastern Europe, Sovereign equality, respect for the rights inherent in sovereignty, Inviolability of frontiers. But demand for respect of Human Rights and fundamental freedoms, including the freedom of thought, conscience, religion or belief The Marshall 1947—1951. The American initiative to aid the rebuilding of Europe after World War II. Plan Gave economic aid to European countries to prevent the spread of communism but it divided Europe since Soviet countries didn't receive the aid. Resulted in significant growth of Western Europe. European Treaty of Rome, 1957. Four freedoms: freedom of movement of goods, services, capital Customs Union and people. European Economic Community on January 1, 1958. European Coal Established by the Treaty of Paris, 1951 to unify European countries. Signed by France, and Steel West Germany, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to pool the steel and coal Community resources of its member-states. Idea was to make war technically impossible (steel needed for arms) by creating a common market for coal and steel among member states to neutralize competition for resources. Eventually led to the formation of the European Union. Origins of Important for the constitutionalisation of the European Communities. Emphasis on the Democratic reference of liberty in the Treaty of Rome and that the treaty imposes strict political Conditionality in conditions on membership. European Community/Unio n Birkelbach Only democratic states with free political order were eligible for membership in the EC. The Report conditions were that the EC states must have a government that is democratically legitimate and their people must participate in the government decisions through a free- elected representative. Respect for human rights was also another condition. Spain was rejected membership because it was a military dictatorship. Totalitarianism Soviet Totalitarianism: Monopoly control by Communist Party (No other parties allowed to function). Total control over individual (No independent civil society). State control over economy (No economic actors independent of state and state controlled prices). Ter
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