• The longterm individual doesn’t not matter, what matters is the longterm
o This process is nearly impossible to alter, more long term, and very
• An individual dose matter and you can over come the advantages that have come.
o Dependent on actions of individuals, unpredictable and any out some is
Structuralism Vs. Voluntarism
Between these twostructuralism doesn’t look at what individual is they are uniform and
all based on history. And because it is not based on the individual it is more predictable.
Voluntarism where it takes into consideration the individual makes the theory more
unpredictable and can change at anytime because people can overcome what they don’t
like at any time
Dependent and independent variable ****
• Dependent variable (DV) ▯phenomenon that is effect by other variables
– What you are trying to explain – the puzzle
– Any kind of outcome
• The death of John Kennedy
• Ethnic violence
• Independent variable – causes of DV
– Solo gunman
– Age, race, sex
• Is a set of permanent administrative legal, bureaucratic and coercive institutions
that enforce order,
• As system of government or administrative ▯the set of rules by which political
power is gained and allocated
• I.e. democratic elections.
Government • A body that is in power at a given time and which has the power to make and
• Is the process of democracy
• 1) Free and fair elections
• 2) Adult suffrage – everyone can vote
• 3) Elected governments real power
• 4) Protection of Civil Liberties
• 5) Level Playing field
– Point to real problems/deficits in developed democracies
Maximalist VS. Minimalist definition of democracy
Defined: is the existence of multiparty Define: existence of absence of multi
government. party elections
- Political equality, gender equality, civic – Easy to identify
republicanism, economic democracy, and – Lots of cases
Problems Lumps very different countries in same
- Too many people, lots of opinions. category – i.e. Sweden and Uzbekistan
- Conflict with some personal gain of groups/
– Combine too many different dimensions (economy, political institutions)
– Often don’t exist in real world – thus limited analytical utility
Focus on specific outcomes
1. Economic equality
2. High Participation
3. High Accountability
Level vs. Uneven playing field
- Concept of fairness where each player - Incumbent abuse of the state generates
has a chance to succeed. such disparities in access to resources,
media, or state institutions that
- They all play by the same set of rules and no external interference affects opposition’s ability to organize and
these abilities. compete for national office is seriously
- More ideas for civil liberties. Allows impaired.
people to make a say ▯ which leads to - Less international criticism
democracy. - Undermines democracy even absent
- significant civil liberties violations
Botswana, Tanzania – no opposition
despite few civil liberties violations
Political outcomes the outgrowth of longstanding values
Focus on values held by population as a whole
Don’t look at interests or economic structure, look at religion
Critiques of cultural approaches
• No mechanism for cultural change
• In the 1960’s, argument that catholic countries in Latin America could not be
democratic – but virtually all Latin American countries democratic today
No casual Mechanism
• Authoritarianism a system of rule through coercion so popular values not
• Blames the victim
Its not popular values, it’s the state enforcement ▯the fear that makes people follow.
Development and democracy
- Focus on product of liberalism.
- Focused on the individual over the collective
- Distrust in state
- Nonhierarchical – ultimate authority rests with individual
- Importance of competition
• Network of powerful, independent, nongovernmental organizations
– Trade unions
– National Rifle Association
• Mostly defend rights against state – promote democracy Steven Fish’s interpretation of Mongolian democracy
- The democracy was a government who didn’t need to build on economic but more
work on the technical things.
- Regime in Mongolia creating and choosing how they are going to run thing ▯
basically presidential regime and unitary state.
- Mongolian democracy is not invulnerable. The country's economy began posting
positive growth rates in 1994 and has since maintained them, and stabilization
policies brought the annual inflation rate down to a respectable 18 percent in 1997. ▯
hints the high rise of unemployment.
- The Mongolia institution of democracy seems to always switch there electoral laws
have stimulated party formation, every election ▯cause for conflict and zerosum
- Having lack of education on voting for everyone leaving elite to do the voting.
- They also have government in too much control over mass media ▯ which can be seen
- Overall they have a voulnerist sistuoation and made there way by hoice to change
Presidentialism and democracy
Presidentialism is more stable ▯ but the higher up the power the less you have a
chance to stop the crisis before it happens.
Parliamentarism and democracy
- Makes a flexibility to political process ▯ any in the leisguter may be able to makes
Linz’s interpretation of the problems of presidentialism
- The first is the president's strong claim to democratic, even plebiscitarian, legitimacy;
the second is his fixed term in office.
- There is points where the legislature speaks above the president and stretching of
power happens ▯ where they question who speaks for the people?
- The fix term in office is rigidity and uncontinuous political process. ▯The rule o