PHLB11 Full Final Exam Material

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Department
Political Science
Course
POLB92H3
Professor
Spyridon Kotsovilis
Semester
Winter

Description
POSITIVISTLAWPositivismemphasizestheroleoflawasahumancreationorpositsThecoreclaimofpositivismisthatlawhasnoessentialrelationtomoralityLawmakerscantakeaccountofmoralityinmakinglawbutlawassuchisindependentofmoralityThechallengeforpositivismistoexplainoursensethatlawcreatesobligationsforusPositivistsasparticipantsandtheoristsofthelegalsystemAsparticipantstheyadvocateonwhattheythinkbestandonhowmoralityhasitsplaceastheoriststheydontwanttochangethelawbutunderstanditanddonotseeaplaceformoralityNATURALLAWNaturallawtheoriesemphasizetheauthorityoflawthelawcreatesmoralobligationsInordertoobligateusnaturallawtheoriesarguethatlawmustbelinkedinsomewaytomoralityThismeansthatwhatthelawisdependsinpartonmoralityratherthanjustonwhatlegislatorsdoThechallengeistoexplainhowlawdependsonlegislatorsalongsideitsmoraldimensionCommandTheoryofLawAustin1Lawisacommandissuedbyasovereign2Backedupbythreatofforce3AndHabituallyobeyedSovereigncanbepersonorgroupparliamentObjectionsIstheuseofforceimmoralthenotionofthesovereignbeingallpowerfulRadburchNaturallawWherestatutorylawisincompatiblewiththerequirementsofjusticetoanintolerabledegreeorwherestatutorylawwasobviouslydesignedinawaythatdeliberatelynegatestheequalitythatisthecoreofalljusticestatutorylawmustbedisregardedbyajudgeinfavourofthejusticeprincipleSinceitsfirstpublicationin1946theprinciplehasbeenacceptedbyGermanysFederalConstitutionalCourtinavarietyofcasesManypeoplepartiallyblametheolderGermanlegaltraditionoflegalpositivismfortheeasewithwhichHitlerobtainedpowerinanoutwardlylegalmannerratherthanbymeansofacoupArguablytheshifttoaconceptofnaturallawoughttoactasasafeguardagainstdictatorshipanuntrammeledStatepowerandtheabrogationofcivilrightsPuttfarkenhadnolegalobligationtoinformonGottigforwritingHitlerisamassmurdererandtoblameforthewaronthewalloftheWCAnyonewhoinformedonanotherduringthoseyearsknewthathewasdeliveringuptheaccusedtoarbitrarypowernotconsigninghimtoalawfuljudicialprocedurewithlegalguaranteesfordeterminingthetruthandarrivingatajustdecisionGottigcouldneverhavecomeoutalivePuttfarkensconvictionimpliesthatturningGottiginwasaccessorytomurderRadbruchclaimsthattheNazistatutesconflictedwithsuperstatutorylawStatuteswhichconflictwithsuperstatutorylawarenullandvoidleadingtostatutorylawlessnessThreeValuesofLawPurposiveness thegoalofproducingpublicbenefitLegalCertainty thegoalofhavingcitizensknowwhatthelawisJustice treatlikecasesalikethemostabstractofthegoalsWhydostatutesmatterWhynotusesuperstatutorylawallthetimeJusticeandlegalcertaintyarebothimportanttolawandtheycanconflictWhenwerelyonsuperstatutorylawweloselegalcertaintywedontknowwhatthelawiswedontknowwhatotherswillfolloworhowmuchpowerthatgivesjudicialreviewTheconflictbetweenjusticeandlegalcertaintymaywellberesolvedinthiswayThepositivelawsecuredbylegislationandpowertakesprecedenceevenwhenitscontentisunjustandfailstobenefitthepeopleunlesstheconflictbetweenstatuteandjusticereachessuchanintolerabledegreethatthestatuteasflawedlawmustyieldtojusticeHartcriticizesAustinsCommandTheoryeventhoughtheyrebothpositivistsnothingwhichlegislatorsdomakeslawunlesstheycomplywithfundamentalacceptedrulesspecifyingtheessentiallawmakingproceduresmeaningnotjustanywaythatthesovereignissuesacommandwillcountasalawIntheUSlawsmustberatifiedbyboththehouseandthesenateandthensignedbythepresidentInCanadathefederalgovernmentcannotmakelawsgoverninghealthcareoreducationsincetheseareprovincialjurisdictionPositivistLawAlawisalawyoumustalwaysadheretothelawbecauseitwasdesignedtobettersocietyNaturallawaprincipleorbodyoflawsconsideredasderivedfromnaturerightreasonorreligionandasethicallybindinginhumansocietyHartPrimaryVsSecondaryRules
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