polc09 final exam review

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Political Science
Aisha Ahmad

COLLECTIVE SECURITY • System • States and international organizations • International institutions mitigate anarchy • States make strategic calculations on the basis of absolute gains • Cooperation is possible and desirable An attack on one member of the group constitutes an attack on all members. All members of the group are obligated to come to the defense of their ally. Organizations are international institutions. • Rules and institutions reduce uncertainty and increase predictability • Lower transactions costs and increase cooperation • Peace -> trade and economic cooperation, int’l legal institutions, collective security institutions From balance of power to collective security • BOP based on treaty alliances • CS based on creation of a formal, structure international institution that can enforce rules and agreements League of Nations • Formed after WWI • Intergovernmental collective security organization • aimed at maintain peace through collective security and disarmament • Outlawed aggression and offensive war • Stipulated collective action against aggressors • Collective security was aimed at preventing aggression • US develops it but fails to join • Member states dropped out, their interests favoured aggression UN • UN charter was signed by all member states after WWII • UN charter set CS clause, based on sovereign equality and territorial integrity • UNSC has ability to authorize the use of force to prevent aggression against other sovereign members of the UN NATO • Treaty of mutual defense of member states • Attack against one member is attack against all Warsaw Pact • Signed as response to NATO • Treat of mutual defense of member states • Led by USSR • Sought to create a buffer against Western aggression CS during decolonization rd • 1960s was a world of rapid decolonization of 3 world • newly independent states emerged as weak political entities • these states joined the UN and acquired the legal rights associated with sovereign statehood Shift to proxy war • MAD made direct confrontation risky during cold war • It was easier to find a local proxy to do the hard labour • With UNSC paralyzed, US and USSR fought most of their battles in poor countries Fall of USSR • Warsaw pact is dissolved • Former soviet states in eastern Europe and central Asia undergo an economic and political transition • End of Cold war marks a period of optimism for UN UN: Post cold war CS • Gulf war as test case of CS • Iraq invades Kuwait • Kuwait asks the UNSC to active CS measures Bosnian War • Genocide in Europe backyard • Strategic interests meet historical memory • UN plays a weak peacekeeping role • NATO intervention was instrumental in ending the war Afghan Mission • Attack on US triggered collective self-defense clause of the NATO agreement • Military and state-building operation in Afghanistan led by NATO-ISAF forces African Union • Collective security institution mandated to “promote peace, security and stability on the continent” • Can sanction peacekeeping missions in cases of war • AU in Somalia: extensive financial training support from US/pushed out AS militia out of cities NUCLEAR SECURITY Destructiveness = deterrence Limited offensive value, given potential retaliation and environmental damage High defensive value for second-strike capabilities BP in nuclear era • Nuclear weapons as internal balancing • Primary of defensive weapons in system • Stability within a bipolar context Compellence Deterrence - to compel an actor to comply by applying a - to deter an actor from non-compliance by punishment on behaviour threatening to impose a punishment on behaviour A compels B when A deters B when - A imposes cost x on B after B has committed - A threatens cost x on B if and only if B action y and commits action y and - Cost x to B is greater that he gains to B from - The cost x to B is greater than the gains to B action y from action y Nuclear weapons capabilities can deter states from conventional wars of aggression or interventions, out of fear of severe retaliation Proliferation creates stability through mutual deterrence Proliferation creates opportunities for deadly Neorealist model would predict that proliferation would create more stable balance of power in international system Bureaucratic politics model would predict that increased nuclear weapons would increase the probability of accidents and crises MAD Stalemate • Cold war MAD created a tense, but stable stalemate int’l system • At no point did a direct confrontation between the US and USSR or China occur • Most cold war fighting happened in the non-nuclear Third world Cuban missile crisis • Brought world to brink of major nuclear war Non proliferation treaty • Aimed at limiting the spread of nuclear weapons technology • Signed by 190 countries including US, China, Russia • Pakistan, India, Israel didn’t sign • North Korea withdrew 2003 Proliferation in Pakistan and India • India first nuclear test was 1974 • Pakistan launched test 1998 in response to India North Korea Proliferation • NK was a signatory NPT but never ratified • Launched small nuclear test in 2006 leading to international condemnation and harsh UN and economic and commercial sanctions Israel’s nuclear weapons program • Israel was never signatory to NPT • Tested and declared having nuclear weapons • Believed that Israel has nuclear arsenal and launch capabilities Iran’s nuclear program • International atomic energy agency has reported that parts of Iranian nuclear program indicate nuclear weapons being developed HUMAN SECURITY • Post cold war idea • Focus on security of human beings, not just state Agenda for Peace • 1992, UN SG wrote this • report outlined a vision or future UN peace operations, which aimed at increasing international security through peacemaking • scope of such interventions was wider and more ambitious than what traditional collective security entailed Peacemaking to human security • end of cold war opened up political space • genocide in Rwanda and former Yugoslavia spurred debate on int’l norms about intervention Responsibility to protect Drafted by UN in 2005 – stated moral responsibility of the int’l community to intervene to protect civilians in cases of genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity, ethnic cleansing and their incitement Somalia – Military intervention to humanitarian aid 21 yrs of uninterrupted state collapse, 15 peace processes, 3+ year UN intervention Intervention Timeline 1991 • State collapses 1992 • UNIOSOM 1 1993 • UNITAF – united task force • US led, UN sanctioned operation, brought 30000 US troops to Somalia to secure a delivery • Resolution authorized peace keepers any and all means (Chapter 7 – to use force) • By bringing such an enormous force in ongoing civil war, the troops that came in to this environment found themselves embroiled in conflict 1994 • UNOSOM II 1995 • Withdrawal 1996 • Aid Finances State failure • Continued aid financed through course of civil war Canadian Engagement: Beledweyn • Protect humanitarian aid deliveries • Expanding mandate and mission creep from peace-keeping to peace enforcement • Primary responsibility was that aid was being delivered to its participants – to save poor and desperate Africans that were starving The Infamous “Somalia Affair” • May 4 1993 baiting and murder of 2 teenaged civilians • May 16 1993 torture and murder of Somali teenager Shidane Arone • Evidence of White Supremacist Attitudes • Canadian soldiers were found to arrest children who had been caught stealing aid, taking ‘trophy’ pictures with them Discussion Questions • What lessons does the Somalia Affair provide about the hazards of military intervention in complex emergencies? • What other types of intervention could the international community employ in humanitarian emergencies? Should the international community be engaged? Canada’s Transition to Food Aid • WFP remained as one of the only aid agencies in Somalia • Canada is one of the largest suppliers of World Food Program aid in the world • Committed CAD $350m over next 5yrs Post-Intervention War Economy • State failure created new illicit business opportunities • WFP aid was distributed through private companies, worth hundreds of millions of dollars WFP Millionaires • Stakes in all of the big corporations • Initial rise to power off of world food contract The Business of Aid in Somalia • Inability to account for security costs on the road allowed transportation companies to charge exorbitant fees • Insecurity allowed transport companies to stage or allege looting of aid, in order to sell on the black market Consequences to Security and Economy • Collapse of the farming industry in Somalia • Aid withheld during planting season, dumped when its harvesting time • WFP has provided of the most consistent and substantial sources of income to warring groups • 2011 famine has demonstrated the same patterns as 1992 crisis Consequences of UN intervention in Somalia • proliferation of groups in Somali civil war was financed by UNOSOM intervention • long-term food aid provided commanders with secure income, entrenching their positions • consequences of both military and humanitarian interventions have been state destroying NON-TRADITIONAL THREATS TO INTERNATIONAL SECURITY Post-Documentary Discussion • Is SALW(Small arms, light weapons) proliferation an international security issue, or is it a domestic politics problem? • Can an international Arms Trade Treaty prevent the spread of SALW across borders? • Does the widespread availability SALW decrease the security of the state? Civil War and State Failure State Failure: Legal Definition The Montevideo Convention defines the legal criteria for statehood as: • A permanent population • A defined territory • Government • Capacity to enter into relations with other states A “failed state” is any existing that does not meet any one of the above criteria The Weberian definition of the state is: • A state is a political entity that successfully acquires “the monopoly on the legitimate use of force” A “failed state” is a state that has legal statehood (i.e. is considered a sovereign state by the international community), but which fails to have a monopoly on the use of force State failure as an international security threat Porous borders worse: • Smuggling • Weapons proliferation • Illegal migration Lack of governance creates opportunities for • Transnational criminal networks • Terrorist organizations Discussions Questions? • Is civil war contagious? • If domestic conflict is contagious, does the international community have the right or responsibility to intervene to stop civil wars? • Who should intervene, and under what circumstances? TERRORISMS AS AN INTERNATIONAL SECURITY THREAT Rationality, ideology, extremism Terrorism: CIA Definition • Premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by sub national groups or clandestine agents • “international terrorism” means terrorism involving the territory or the citizens of more than one country • “terrorist group” means any group that practices, or has significant subgroups that practice, international terrorism Problems w/ Definitions • There is neither an academic nor a legal consensus on the definition of terrorism • Political violence by sub-state armed groups comes in many different forms Why terrorize? • Rational, strategic explanation of terrorism as a political tool to achieve a particular aim • A cognitivist explanation of terrorism as a reflection of deeply held ideologies Terrorism as a bargaining tool? • Shou
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