final review

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Political Science
Jennifer Levine

POLA90 Final Study Guide personal benefit of office holders as well as of their reference or support group, common in Nigeria) when there is little competition and alternation in office Greed and Grievance-October 27 5. Lack of public goods- If government is not providing public goods to everyone, violence is more likely by government and by groups working outside of government (not necessarily against govt) Causes of Violence 1. Kingship Relations- Form of capital and insurance, but also creates 6. Corruption- government is not working for the people, leading to obligations for involvement in others violent fighting grievances Models 2. Weakfailed states a. Lack of national consolidation renders some states unable to 1. Coordination and collective action. readily control entire population. 2. Prisoners Dilemma b. Some are loyal to other groups above and beyond states, Self-interest may lead one to work against what is best for creating conditions ripe for inter-group conflict. society 3. State consolidation and conflict 3. Principal agent problem a. External pressures often forced states to straighten own house Power given to agent may lead them to control principal b. Colonization, international finance and cold war allowed many Causes of Conflicts governments to worry -rich states are less likely to fight, middle class states rarely fight, BUT poor c. Prosperity- peace states fight d. Easier to exit, than voice complaints (or wage war) 1. Inequality 4. PatrimonialismNeo-patrimonialism and clientelist policies may create 2. Religiousethnic strife losers and winners. 3. Poverty and lack of opportunity for youth a. Losers may have grievances that are never addressed. 4. Lack of democracy b. More (and worse) clientelism (like prebends- patterns of political behavior which rest on the justifying principle that 5. History of conflict [state] offices should be competed for and then utilized for the 6. Cause war v. Fuel War - grievance needed to mobilize and motivate soldiers and funders a. Lowest level of violence to highest b. Economic inequality i. Sporadic or isolated riots c. Lack of political rights d. Government economic incompetence ii. Persistent, organized andor coordinated but lightly armed riots rebellions Failure of grievance iii. Short, heavily armed riotsrebellionscoups a. Only grievance that matters: 5 years of economic decline. Why? iv. Durable, heavily armed conflicts. b. Collier: collective action problem Implications: Public goods (justice, revenge, and relief from government) a. Civil war conflict areas supply most of worlds illegal drugs. leads to problem of free riding b. If external sources of funding pull out, conflict ceases. Rebellions start small, but they will not succeed if small. Coordination problem! c. War creates alternative sources of profit, power and protection. Must fight before justice & rebel leaders may not implement justice if victory is realized. Dominated by rent-seeking and extraction and trade in primary products very short-term (but potentially very lucrative) Some get very rich and powerful through war- thus those who Greed- rebellions arise because rebels aspire to wealth by capturing resources profit are reluctant to end war (greed) - solves the collective action problem... Greivance- rebels seek to rid nation of an unjust regime a. Need to pay soldiers (i.e. Russian Civil War, many soldiers deserted for a. Ethnic or religious hatred opportunities to make money) b. Benefits of rebellion confined to those who are participating in rebellion i. Collier- diversity reduces conflict EXCEPT where one large groups lives alongside a minority (i.e. Sri Lanka, Rwanda) i. Rebels get the mineral wealth, drug profits ii. There are many more conflicts than the ones we hear (i.e. Kosovo, ii. Huge incentive to continue to fight and keep the rebel groups Israeli-Palestinian, Darfur) relatively small iii.Differentiate between ethnic patterns and ethnic causes of war Profiteers
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