Final Exam Terms POLA90.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Political Science
Paul Kingston

Final Exam Terms POLA90:  Genocide‟s are completely related to Western policies  International Crisis Group (ICG):  Challenges of promoting democracies: o Peace building programs necessarily biased towards the accommodation of elite groups and power-holders in post conflict situations? Bounding Social Capital vs. bridging social capital:  Islam and Christian coming together (two groups that may be seemingly divided)- solidates relations between pre-existing communities – strengthens bonds  Bridging- bringing two distinct civil communities together Case Studies: Four Case Studies (essay questions for final exam)- read case studies and notes: Focus on: What happened to the Country? Monopoly of Force: Poor Regimes: Unneeded intervention Why the country was torn apart- how did it start and why is it still divided Historical Legacies- issues of weak state formation and the issues States in the global context Somalia-  Using clans to wage wars against opposing clans o Clans are perpetuated by the lack of education and are based on ignorance o Political, social and economic fragmentation between clans based on land o Post-Conflict situations:  Hegemonic (power, authority) and divisive tendencies  Elites dividing society to gain ultimate powers  Students are interested in strengthening norms or trust, and redefining clanism and religion- originating from its roots o Afghanistan-  When accommodating elite groups and power-holders, the only way to rebuild locally- based „raw power‟ of the state, is by involving these elites in the electoral process  The emergence and support of autonomous and local actors (political, economic civil) etc. especially within Afghanistan Haiti- Republic of Congo:  Militants being reintegrated into a new atmosphere, asking them to move to different allegiances- therefore they were being cut off their former allegiance, which prevented them to succeed in another area  First war: 1996 to 1998  Second War- 1998 to 2003  14 foreign armies involved, over a dozen local and foreign militias  Africa‟s world war- regional (throughout Africa)  500,000 refugees who have made it across the Africa Borders  Local militias act as spoilers to the local community Rents:  Paid inputs to a production, compared to the paid output of that product, and the difference of amount (is there money being made or money being lost on this product)  The elasticity of supply  Economic rent-(production of the cost of inputs)  Rents can be made willingly or can be contrived through coercive use of force  May results in the legal ownership of a state, or the arena where the power is distributed  If the competition is perfect, there are no economic rents- as competition drives the prices down  Rent is significantly different from unearned and passive income- including contract rent  If there is a significant accounting profit, governments can collect a portion of economic rent for the purpose of public fiancé  Extraction fees- resources such as minerals, oil and gas  External rent- one person or state receives money from another‟s economy Rent-Seeking Behaviour:  The power to gain economic rent through another state for your states benefit  Is the limiting of access to lucrative occupations, as by medieval guilds or modern state certifications and licensures  People accused of rent seeking typically argue that they are indeed creating new wealth (or preventing the reduction of old wealth) by improving quality controls, guaranteeing that charlatans do not prey on a gullible public, and preventing bubbles.  Many current studies of rent seeking focus on efforts to capture various monopoly privileges stemming from government regulation of a market.  The term itself derives, however, from the far older practice of appropriating a portion of production by gaining ownership or control of land. Rentier State:  Derive all or a substantial portion of their national revenues from the rent of indigenous resources to external clients.  The term is most frequently applied to states rich in highly valued natural resources such as petroleum but can also include states rich in financial instruments such as a reserve currency  it can also be applied to those nations that trade on their strategic resources (such as permitting the development of an important military base in their territory).  rentier states may generate rents externally by manipulating the global political and economic environment.  if the economy relies on a substantial external rent – and therefore does not require a strong domestic productive sector  perhaps most importantly, which the state‟s government is the principal recipient of the external rent  Consequently in these resource-rich rentier states there is a challenge to developing civil society and democratization R2P Principles (Responsibility to Protect):  Goal must to be to avert human suffering- targeting grave and large scale violation of fundamental human rights  Interventions carry with the responsibility to re-build  emerging norm, or set of principles, based on the idea that sovereignty is not a right, but a responsibility o Three Pillars:  A state has a responsibility to protect its population from mass atrocities;  The international community has a responsibility to assist the state to fulfill its primary responsibility;  If the state fails to protect its citizens from mass atrocities and peaceful measures have failed, the international community has the responsibility to intervene through coercive measures such as economic sanctions. Military intervention is considered the last resort Power Sharing and Goals of Power Sharing:  Power factor analysis  In theory, if leaders are represented in VETO powers, the international community sees it  Purpose is to include all groups in peace negotiations that have the power to pose security threats  Distribution of incentives for political cooperation  Distribution of power between the different groups (religious, ethnic etc.)  Granting of Veto power- over major decisions  Mechanisms to promote cross-communal cooperation  Granting of communal self-sufficiency on a regionally and/or functionally basis (education, voting, legal system, taxation) PROBLEMS with power sharing:  Imperfect peace agreements and the call for renegotiation  Shifts in power balances o Short term rigidity- lead to stale mates- so extra forms of political institutions- forming new legislation is very hard to do at this point (back room deals)  Undemocratic cross communal strengthening of elite powers  Slow-moving transformations  The destabilizing effect of exogenous shocks (something that happens and causes large shocks) coming from bad neighbourhoods o Increase of ethnic distribution challenges the other group(s) o Educated middle class, increase thereof o Formal and informal granting of communal autonomy  Distribution along clientelist and or ethnic lines rather that along universalist one  Brinksmanship (elites choosing other elites to run the country):  Ideal form of democracy is state to citizen Security Sector Reform (SSR‟s):  Elections  Training armed forces in international humanitarian law and human rights  Supporting civil society watchdogs organizations  Professionalism programs for armed forces and police  Transitional Justice efforts- i.e. special courts  Humanitarian aid to overcome the legacies of war  Control: o Ensuring forces adhere to the law, accountable and clear lines of authorities and commands  Capacity: o Security forces are able to do what they are instructed to do  Cooperation: o Promoting regional security, cooperating with other armies, combined activities against regional threats (terrorism, smuggling piracy) Consociationalism (power sharing model):  initially derived from experiences in the Global North  usually assumes pre-existing culture of accommodation, strong state institutions, economic prosperity and a benign if not supportive regional and global government  Huge challenges involved with building the state into a unified body and a coherent state  Huge costs involved with re-building- are it sustainable? Usually dependent on external efforts (Rentier state) Peace Building in War torn states: Elections:  Variety of purposes- some in conflict with others  Internal and external legitimac
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