Concepts1..docx

6 Pages
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Department
Political Science
Course Code
POLC38H3
Professor
Paul Kingston

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Description
Theoretical debates over the concept of civil society - Between state, market, individual/family - Interactions with in/formal associations can produce o positive norms of mutual trust o reciprocity - Commitment to : o political and social engagement - Produce social capital if sustained leading to political capital o autonomous political influence - Autonomous interactions interact to produce o social energy producing action - Train effective citizens to produce civic engagement - Limit intrusive bureaucracies - Fight authoritarian governance - Promote democracy consolidation Benefits and pitfalls of promoting civil society in post-conflict societies - Civil society key for democracy in post-conflict contexts, training political leadership, building new societies - Democratic participation - Trust - Toleration norms - Bonding social capital - Bridging social capital - Mediator between popular interests and state - Was optimism warranted? 1. Is civil society independent in development process? 2. How do civil societies relate to/influence other social structures? 3. How do civil societies relate to/influence political structures? 4. Where does it leave analysis of civil society and efforts to develop/strengthen it? - Is civil society independent variable in development processes? 1. Different parts work together or contesting? 2. Clear boundaries separating from market, state, family? 3. Always promote and behave according to democratic norms? - How do civil societies relate to social (communal, clan, class structure) structures? o Social structures characterized by ethnic divisions reflecting within civil societies - How do civil societies relate to political structures (state)? o Power and influence of civil society influenced by state structure’s access to power and resources The resource curse and political development - Resources associated with authoritarian regime and state reinforcement - Why? o Laziness o If resources controlled by private economic elites, can promote rent-seeking behaviour o Lead to rentier states - Correlation between natural resources and civil war o Exacerbate grievances The resource curse and economic development - Resource Curse and Economic Development o Correlation between natural resources and slow economic growth o Why?  Dependency school of thought  Poor linkage to rest of economy  Dutch Disease:  Resource crowds out investment into more productive sectors Rent-seeking behavior - Rent o Excess revenues over all costs including normal profits - Rent usage o Mechanism for maintaining power and influence i. Politically-motivated subsidies and transfers linked to networks of political patronage and patron- clientelism ii. Bureaucratic corruption iii. Other illegal transfers The rentier state - Large amount of revenue directed at state - Less need to raise money through taxation - Absence of taxation weakens citizen rights for rulers’ accountability - Financially empowers to choose populations through rents distributions - Rent-seeking dependency on o socio-economic o political elites Security sector reform - State elements with legitimate claim - Exclusive role in exercising coercive power and hold monopoly of violence to protect against internal/external threats - Reform: o Post-Cold war  Threatened by own security forces o West realized importance of security to development  Aid for good governance to improve security and development post-conflict 1. Control: a. returning civilian oversight over armed forces i. ensure forces follow law, accountable to democratic elected leaders, transparent, clear authority 2. Capacity: a. security forces able to do what they are instructed 3. Cooperation: a. promote regional security, cooperating with armies, combined activities against regional threats i. terrorism, smuggling, piracy - Toolkit: o Civilian control over military o Elections o Armed forces training in humanitarian law and human rights o Civil society organizations o Disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR) o Professionalization programs for armed forces and police o Humanitarian aid to overcome war legacies o Sierra Leone, Haiti, Kosovo, Afghanistan Responsibility to protect doctrine (R2P) - Establish norms on which intervention decisions can be made - Avert human suffering by targeting o grave and large violations of fundamental human rights - Military intervention rules - All interventions must be sanctioned by o UNGA o UNSC o regional security body - Interventions carry responsibility to rebuilt and prevent further abuses of human rights Power sharing - System of conflict resolutions usually in pluralist/divided societies - Distribution of incentives for political cooperation - Elite cartels make horizontal inclusiveness but not vertical/democratic - Political system rigidity – reduces political adaption possibility to o Imperfect peace agreements and renegotiation o Power balance shifts o Slow-moving transforma
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