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University of Toronto Scarborough
Political Science
Ingrid L.Stefanovic

Inside Insurgencies: Politics and Violence in an Age of Civil War-TARROW For example, Collier and Hoeffler found significant correlations between civil wars and high levels of primary commodity exports, large populations, low levels of secondary education, low economic growth, low per capita income and the presence of previous civil warsall of which they assigned to the opportunity column. In the grievance column, they found only that the lack of democracy was significant, that inequality was insignificant but with the expected positive sign, and that ethnic and religious fractionation were surprisingly unimportant. When they combined both sets of proxies into a full model, they found that a model that focused on the opportunities for rebellion performed well in predicting civil war onset, whereas objective indicators of grievances added little explanatory power. Opportunistic rebellions: where participation involves fewer risks, short-term gains are more likely, and low commitment participants resemble consumers, whose commitment to the organization is weak and who expect to be rewarded immediately for their involvement. The modal participant is an opportunist greed trumps grievances. Activist rebellions: where particip
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