Mid-Term Compiled Lecture Notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Political Science
Jennifer Levine

Politics Corruption and Violence MidTerm Lecture Notes Key Terms y Capital o Something you invest in longterm that will make you money in the future o Doesnt have to be just economic monetary but can be social or intellectual capital that will benefit in the future o Bates sees it as one of the most important things when it comes to understanding development o No incentive to invest if there is a threat of danger and security is not guaranteedif not investing your longterm prosperity will not grow Bates discussion on the affect of violence on prosperity y Corruptiono Ades and Di Tella Corruption adversely influences investmentwhich is very very important for developing countries o Corruption can be a big deal that interferes with accumulation of capital and longterm prosperity o People are corrupt because of opportunities exist its sometimes better for ones own selfinterest even if its not better for society to be corrupty Clientelism o Superior or patron provides some scarce good money security housing in an unequal exchange for support Carrots to support a system of government o Delegation occurs as midlevel clients allocate scarce goods to lowerlevel clients to maintain their own support o Benefits may be allocated to clearly identified ethnicreligiousclassoccupational groups o Patronage vs PrebendsIn nondemocratic countries and in democratic countries with dominant partyClapham pp 5657 describes how clientelism often spread after independenceCommon where there is great inequality and possibly where society is very hierarchical o Becomes less common when state resources decline or other paths to prosperity become more accessible o In theory redistributes wealth o Van der Walle is skeptical that it does so but it does tend to strengthen ties to kith and kin o Sives notes that clientelistic relationships strengthens vertical or hierarchical ties not horizontal ties as you solidify bond with your patron fail to recognize political social common bonds w others in similar socioeconomic situationsWhy ClientelismCommunity cultural norms What people expect from their officialsOutgrowth of loyalties to kinMaintains salience of kinnot classrelationshipWay of keeping loyalty or peace of poor without spending many resourcesWay to get out the vote maintain loyalty of other elites Van de Walle or get other good may be done by nonstate actors SivesExplains patterns of competition that include one large dominant party and many smaller partiesPoliticians join large party because that party tends to have the most resources they can then allocateSome realize they can have more if they are independent van de Walle p 13No incentive to cut deals with other opposition partiesresources are controlled by dominant party or they are unlikely to get any even if they join dominant partyClientelistic appeals instead of pure identity or programmatic appeals Political Party ChoicesOffer material resources not particular sets of policies or issue positionsStokes stresses that what distinguishes clientelism is combination of bias and an expectation of a quid pro quo Ill rub your back if you rub mine ClientelismCompetition o Clientelism associated with political competition corruption motivated by political interests happensbut aside from vote buying not universally derided o Problems associated with excess not existence o Bias towards one group may be quite bad but generally hard to describe in terms that readily differentiates negative behavior Clientelism and State History PersistenceProvision of private goods by patron to network of clientsupportersReciprocity is key o Client helps patron patron helps clientOther characteristics like personal charismatic rule are associated with clientelism Pragmatic ShortTerm SolnIf one politicians tries to buck trendsocietyhabits o Like a Prisoners Dilemma Two politicians will both defect by providing support to patrons even though may be best off if both agree not toImp to remember that benefits both patron and client
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