Group B Terms
If you see anything that is questionable or wrong in any of the definitions please use the
Feel free to add words that relate to the term or add your own two cents in a separate paragraph
after the original definition
POLC40 Exam Terms
Nneka Tengco [email protected]
Adisa Terry [email protected]
1. Acquis Communautaire
It currently the body of europe which incorporates legislations, legal acts, and court decisions.
By having the split in chapters, it allows for better negotiation and a better balance of power.
Went from having 31 chapters to now having 36.
3. CAP- stands for Common Agricultural Policy:
it implements system of agricultural subsidies and other programs. It was established in the late
1980‟s and early 1960‟s due to members of the European Commission having emerged from a
decade of severe food shortages during and after the WWII.
- proposed by the European Commission and adopted by 6 founding member states.
-its purpose is for market unity, community preferences and financial solidarity.
- it was a political compromise between France and Germany - so the German industry would
have access to French market and in exchange Germany would help pay for France‟s farmers.
4. CFSP - The Common Foreign & Security Policy
- foreign policy of the European Union.
- it is established for security and defence diplomacy and actions.
- deals with Trade & Commercial Policy and other areas such as funding to third countries. 5. Charles de Gaulle- In 1958 found the french fifth republic, the 5th republic constitution of
France and served the 1st president of France until 1968.
- He wanted an independent france without alliances such as Britain or America.
- He shared similar vision concerning Europe.
- He planned on creating a strong European confederation that would overcome any dependence
links with United States or the Soviet Union.
- He liked the idea of a “Free Europe”
Shaesta Latif [email protected]
- legislative process introduced by the Treaty of Maastricht
- In the co-decision procedure, the European Parliament and the Council jointly adopt (i.e. co-
decide) legislation. The Parliament now shares legislative authority with the Council.
-Co-decision requires consensus to be reached between the Council and the Parliament for
legislation to be adopted.
- This procedure has been applied to most directives adopted since the Maastricht Treaty and has
given Parliament a much greater role and influence in the formulation of EU legislation in the
field of employment and industrial relations
- In practice, the co-decision procedure affects not only the dynamics of the legislative process
but also has a potential effect on the European social dialogue
7. Cohesion Fund
- The Cohesion Fund is aimed at Member States whose Gross National Income (GNI) per
inhabitant is less than 90% of the Community average
- It serves to reduce their economic and social shortfall, as well as to stabilise their economy
- The Cohesion Fund finances activities under the following categories: 1. Trans-European
transport networks and 2. Environment; Cohesion Fund can also be supported projects related to energy or transport, as long as they clearly present a benefit to the environment: energy
efficiency, use of renewable energy, developing rail transport etc..
- Has connection with the EU Council; the financial assistance of the Cohesion Fund can be
suspended by a Council decision (taken by qualified majority) if a Member State shows
excessive public deficit and if it has not resolved the situation or has not taken the appropriate
action to do so.
8. Committee of the Regions
- The Committee of the Regions is an advisory body representing local and regional authorities
in the European Union
- the CoR is to put forward local and regional points of view on EU legislation. It does so by
issuing reports („opinions‟) on Commision proposals
- The Commission, the Council and the Parliament must consult the Committee of the Regions
before EU decisions are taken on matters concerning local and regional government (for example
on employment policy, the environment, education or public health).
- The CoR holds five plenary sessions each year, to define general policy and adopt opinions.
- There are six „commissions‟ to consider different policy areas and prepare the opinions to be
debated in the plenary sessions: 1. Territorial cohesion, 2. economic and social policy, 3.
education, youth and research, 4. environment, climate change and energy, 5. citizenship,
governance, institutional and external affairs, 6. Natural resources
- it also adopts resolutions on political issues
- Under the Lisbon Treaty, the European Commission now has to consult with local and regional
authorities and their associations across the EU as early as in the pre-legislative phase
9. Community Method
- This is the EU's usual method of decision-making, in which the Commission makes a proposal
to the Council and Parliament who then debate it, propose amendments and eventually adopt it as
EU law. In the process, they will often consult other bodies such as the European Economic and
Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions.
- The Treaty of Maastricht (1992) introduced an institutional structure composed of three
pillars..The Community method denoted the institutional functioning of the first pillar of the
- The Treaty of Lisbon abolished the three pillar structure in favour of creating the European
Union (EU). 10. Conditionality
- The European Union also employs conditionality with respect to enlargement, with
membership conditional on candidate countries meeting the Copenhagen criteria and adopting
the acquis communautaire
- Each member state is to required to adopt the acquis before joining the EU
- The Acquis is dynamic, it is constantly developing as the community evolves
Timothy Fung [email protected]
11. Copenhagen Criteria
- The rules that define whether a country is eligible to join the EU. The criteria require that a
state has the institutions to preserve democratic governance and human rights, has a functioning
market economy, and accepts the obligations and intent of the EU.
- explains why countries in Europe would want to conform to similar policies to countries within
- The cooperation procedure (formally known as the Article 252 procedure) was one of the
principal legislative procedures of the European Community, before the entrance into force of
the Treaty of Amsterdam. It was retained after that treaty but only in a few areas. It was finally
repealed by the Treaty of Lisbon in 2009.
- The procedure's introduction by the Single European Act marked the first step toward real
power for the European Parliament.
- Under the procedure the Council could, with the support of Parliament and acting on a proposal
by the Commission, adopt a legislative proposal by a qualified majority, but the Council could
also overrule a rejection of a proposed law by the Parliament by adopting a proposal
- Prior to the Amsterdam Treaty the procedure covered a wide variety of legislation, notably in
relation to the creation of the Single Market. It was amended by that treaty when its
replacement with the codecision procedure failed to be agreed. The Nice Treaty limited the
procedure to certain aspects of economic and monetary union.
- The cooperation procedure was repealed by the Treaty of Lisbon.
Significance: - how the european parliament rose to power historically
- outlines what the EP could and could not do back when it had very little power
- is the Committee of Permanent Representatives in the European Union, made up of the head or
deputy head of mission from the EU member
There are in fact two committees:
● COREPER I consists of deputy heads of mission and deals largely with social and
○ transport, telecommunications and energy
○ agriculture and fisheries
○ education, youth and culture
● COREPER II consists of heads of mission (Ambassador Extraordinary and
Plenipotentiary) and deals largely with political, financial and foreign policy issues.
○ general affairs and external relations
○ economic and financial affairs
○ justice and home affairs
14. Cotonou Agreement
- The Cotonou Agreement is aimed at the reduction and eventual eradication of poverty while
contributing to sustainable development and to the gradual integration of ACP countries into the
world economy. The revised Cotonou Agreement is also concerned with the fight against
impunity and promotion of criminal justice through the International Criminal Court.
- shows that the EU is a sovereign institution in all its rights including sovereign power over
states, courts, government, military, and humanitarian relief efforts.
15. Eastern Enlargement
- The process of expanding the European Union (EU) through the accession of new member
states began with the Inner Six, who founded the European Coal and Steel Community (the EU's
predecessor) in 1952. Since then, the EU's membership has grown to twenty-eight, with the latest
member state being Croatia, which joined in July 2013.
- how the EU started how and how the EU became what it is today.
Group 4 NAME E-Mail
Mohamed Murchie [email protected]
Dominik Gora [email protected]
21. European Central Bank
The European Central Bank is the central bank of the Eurozone, the 17 countries using the Euro.
It sets the monetary policy ie. interest rate, and stability of the European currency. It is
mentioned in the Treaty of Maastricht creating a European Union. It is an institution of the EU,
among the European Council, Council of the European Union, ECJ, EP, and Court of Auditors
and European Commission. This gives it a central role in the European Union and European
integration since the institutions as the ECB is are given the most focus in the integration
22. European Commission
Legislative body of the European Union. It has supranational authority and its powers are given
by treaties of the European Union. It is the only EU body that has the legislative right of
proposal. Throughout the integration process its powers have grown and successive treaties have
given it more power, for example the Treaty of Amsterdam added employment to its
competencies. Also, democratic oversight over its dealings have been expanded, the co-decision
procedure with the European Parliament. This body is central to European integration, being a
part of it even before the Union in the EEC. Its competencies, as the Union federalizes will only
23. European Council Summit It comprises of heads of states of EU member states along with President of the European
commission and President of the European Council although they have non-voting rights.
Although it has no formal legislative power, it defines the general political directions and
priorities of the Union. Collective strategizing and crisis solving body. Meetings usually take
place twice every 6 months. Its power has grown over the years, it was institutionalized in the
treaty of Lisbon. Part of the intergovernmental aspect of the European Union. The summits are
an integral part of the European Union and integration process. They have evolved to address
specific parts of the Union. For example Eurozone summits are composed of heads of states of
24. European Court of Justice
This is the supreme court of the European Union. It deals with cases only referring to European
law. It ensures it is being applied equally in all member states. Each state has a judge, therefore
as the integration process encompasses more states the applicability of the European Court of
Justice in the European union will increase, as increases in its funding has shown. It has made
several landmark decisions, for example direct effect and supremacy. In Van Gend en Loos the
court ruled that the EC constitutes a new legal order and its law subjects not only states but its
nationals. In Costa v. Enel the court ruled that Union law takes supremacy over national law,
cannot be overridden by it. The continuing judicial decisions of the court comprise the acquis
which member states have to implement and usually are legally supportive of integration.
25. European Parliament
Only directly institution of the European Union. Together with the Council and the European
Commission it has legislative power in the Union. It does not however possess legislative
initiative but has gained more powers, especially co decision, with the European Commission.
Shares equal budgetary and legislative powers with the Council. As European integration grows,
the powers of the parliament have grown, it now accepts the European Commission. In future
integration efforts, the role of the Parliament is bound to increase. In the federalist perspective,
there is a huge emphasis on democratization and the current dealings of the EU favour the
federalist perspective and therefore the powers of the EP will grow, being its only democratically
elected institution of the EU. For example the EP significantly changed from its original the
Bolkestein directive, which established a single market for services in the EU from its original.
Brooke Doble [email protected]
29. Exchange-Rate Mechanism (ERM)
30. Institutionalism (theory of)
Simon Izmirian [email protected]
31. Intergovernmental Conference (IGC)
This term is used to describe negotiations between the Member States' governments with a view
to amending the Treaties. These conferences are convened under the framework of the ordinary
revision procedure of the Treaties provided for by Article 48 of the Treaty on European Union.
Intergovernmentalism treats states, and national governments in particular, as the primary actors
in the integration process. Intergovernmentalist approaches claim to be able to explain both
periods of radical change in the European Union (because of converging governmental
preferences) and periods of inertia (due to diverging national interests). Intergovernmentalism is
distinguishable from realism and neorealism because of its recognition of both the significance
of institutionalisation in international politics and the impact of domestic politics upon
33. Jacques Delors
Jacques Delors, in full Jacques Lucien Jean Delors (born July 20, 1925, Paris, France), French
statesman who was president of the European Commission, the executive body of the European
Community (EC; ultimately succeeded by the European Union [EU]), from 1985 to 1995.
34. Jean Monnet
Jean Omer Marie Gabriel Monnet was a French political economist and diplomat. He is regarded
by many as a chief architect of European unity and one of the founding fathers of the European
35. Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Hermann Joseph Adenauer 5 January 1876 – 19 April 1967) was a German statesman.
As the first post-war Chancellor of Germany (West Germany) from 1949 to 1963, he led his country from the ruins of World War II to a productive and prosperous nation that forged close
relations with old enemies France and the United States. During his years in power Germany
achieved prosperity, democracy, stability and respect. He was the first leader of the Christian
Democratic Union (CDU), a Christian Democratic party that under his leadership became, and
has since remained, the most powerful party in the country.
Amionaireye Dako [email protected]
36. Lisbon Treaty:
Is an international agreement, which amends the two treaties, which form the constitutional basis
of the European Union. The Lisbon Treaty was signed by the EU member states on 13 December
2007, and entered into force on 1 December 2009. It amends the Maastricht Treaty also known
as the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty establishing the European Community also
known as the Treaty of Rome. In this process, the Rome Treaty was renamed to the Treaty on the
Functioning of the European Union.
The Treaty also made the Union's bill of rights, the Charter of Fundamental Rights, legally
The stated aim of the treaty was "to complete the process started by the Treaty of Amsterdam
1997 and by the Treaty of Nice 2001 with a view to enhancing the efficiency and democratic
legitimacy of the Union and to improving the coherence of its action.
At the meeting of the European Council in October 2007, Portugal insisted that the Treaty then
called the 'Reform Treaty' be signed in Lisbon, the Portuguese capital. This request was granted,
and the Treaty was thus to be called the Treaty of Lisbon, in line with the tradition of European
The European Parliament approved the Treaty by 525 votes in favour and 115 against on 20
February 2008 on the basis of an analysis of the treaty's implications by the Parliament's
rapporteurs Richard Corbett and Inigo Mendez de Vigo.
The biggest winners from Lisbon have been Parliament, with its increase in power, and the
European Council. Parliament has used its greater powers over legislation, but also for example over the
appointment of the Commission to gain further privileges from President Barroso and it used its
budgetary powers as a veto over how the External Action Service should be set up.
The European Council officially gains the status of an EU institution, thus being separated from
the Council of ministers. It continues to be composed of the heads of state or government of the
Union's member states along with the nonvoting President of the European Commission and its
Under the Treaty of Lisbon, the European Council is charged with setting the strategic priorities
of the Union, and in practice with handling crises.