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Political Science
Susan Solomon

1. Explain Thrasymachus’ definition of justice? What is the political significance of his definition? How does Socrates challenge his claims? --Justice is the advantage of the stronger --justice doesn’t work in favor of moral understandings ppl it works for immoral people- doesn’t work for the person who is just, works for the benefit of the other --justice is seen as unnatural restraint on our natural desire of having more --3 arguments—makes T understand whatever hes saying is injustice as a virtue—what your saying is life is seen as a continual competition where your trying to gain more (more power, more money)- whoever is most successful, has greatest virtue- Socrates is saying injustice cannot be a virtue(good moral understanding) because it doesn’t do good to anyone -- he looks at reasoning and says that injustice isn’t a virtue-contradicts wisdom (good judgment) –(wise man- whose skilled in an art doesn’t seek to beat out those who posses the same art— mathematician isn’t in competition with other mathematicians) -- since justice is a virtue of the soul, virtue of the soul means health of the soul, justice is desirable since it means health of the soul—if we have a good moral understanding, we have a healthy soul 2. Glaucon- idea of goods divided into three classes- we desire goods only for their own consequences (medical treatment) --goods we desire for its own sake (happiness, sight, something that makes us happy, highest class) --goods we desire for its own sake and what we get out of it (knowledge )—were taking this course to understand philosophical knowledge of political science – it will help us in the future) --now he wants Socrates to prove that justice is not only desireable, but belongs to highest class of desirable things (it should be the highest priority of what we want)—those desired for their own sake and consequences --most people class justice among first group- just for their consequence --people view justice as necessary evil, which we allow ourselves to suffer in order to avoid greater evil Glaucon- justice stems from human weakness and vulnerability (theifing money ex) --since we can all suffer from each other’s injustices, we make a social contract agreeing to be just to one another (justifying yourself I lost money, shumaya justifying that you never took it) --we suffer from justice just to avoid suffering from worse without it. (own selfish reasons) --justice –not for its own sake but something one engages in out of fear and weakness --Glaucons cousin Adimantus—adds to his suggestion, justice is not done for its own sake but for rewards it allows you to gain in both this life and afterlife 3. Two types of political justice- one belong to city and the other belonging to a man --city is bigger than man—man will proceed upon the assumption that it is easier to first look for justice at political level (easier, common grounds), and then later look at whether there is any similar virtue to be found in individual --Socrates- places a neutral-understanding of an argument – he is saying justice is both for our self and the society around us. --whereas Glaucon’s social contract theory says that human nature is not simply greedy and competitive, instead a complex mixture that human nature is unified and perfected by justice. justice is not totally towards one’s own benefit (justice is what causes humans to act certain way because it replaces moral understandings by goods) --Socrates-epistomological-based on his own knowledge- hes saying humans don’t know what good really represents and beacause of that they cannot provide an adequate foundation for just society (they don’t know what a just society is) –people don’t know the difference between morality and goods—therefore they don’t agree to what society’s understanding of this- which makes them negotiate into compromise and adopt to social contract theory --those enlightened by philosophy- are the only ones to understand what justice is because they know how justice is tied with the Good 4. Role of Guardians -there are three clesses of individuals—Craftsmen, armies/guardians, rulers/auxiliaries --craftsmen- poorest --guardians-middle --rulers-highest class --guardians- were the protectors, protect the rulers by fighting and following the laws. Guardians all live together in housing provided for them by city. Receive no wages, cannt hold any private wealth or property. They are supported entirely by city through taxation of producing class. It is unlawful for them to even handle gold or silver—it is sinful for them to mix earthly gold and silver with divine silver and gold in their souls (classification of three classes— gold, silver, bronze). Socrates reasoning- if rulers given the chance to get private property, they will inevitably abuse their power and rule for their own gain, rather than the good of entire city. (what our politicians do back home). 5. Myth of the Metals --Myth- contends that all citizens of city born out of earth. This persuades people to be loyal. --They have reason to dedicate themselves and be loyal to their particular plot of ground and their citizens --plot of ground- mother --fellow citizens- their bros and sis --myth holds that each citizen has certain sort of metal mixed in with their soul --souls of those most fit to rule, there is gold --those suited to be guardians- there is silver --those suited to be producers- bronze or iron --city cannot be ruled by someone whose soul is mixed with the wrong metal (city cannot be ruled by producers or guardian) --if city ruled by wrong metal, it will ruin the city 6. Four virtues-wisdom, courage, moderation, justice --Wisdom lied with guardians-because of their knowledge of how city should run (guardians have authority to enforce laws) --if guardians were not ruling and if it were democracy, their virtue would not translate into virtue of city , so since they are in charge, their wisdom becomes city’s virtue --courage lies with auxiliaries—they fight for power; for city. So it is their courage that counts as virtue of city --Moderation and justice go hand in hand with eachother in contrast to wisdom and courage. They are spread out over the whole city --Moderation- identified with agreement over who should rule city and justice is its complement—law that all do the job to which they are best suited (what they are best at) --Socratest claim-there are three parts of soul --rational part of the soul- lasts after truth --spirited part of the soul- lusts after honor --appititive part of the soul- lusts after everything remaining- food, sex, drink, money --these three part of soul correspond to three classes of city --appetitive- found within producing class because they are the ones to produce the wealth of the city --spirit part- found within auxiliaries- they are the rulers, more power, more honour --reason part- found in guardian—dominant towards knowledge --soul like the city found in three-way categorization --Plato- individuals can be defined in comparison to society 7. Socrates agrees with Adeimantus’s idea of contemporary philosopher—he seen them as useless and vicous because thye would go around and give ppl certain type of knowledge --Socrates agrees with Adeimantus—he argues that current philosophers have not been raised in the right way—he believes yes they are vicous and useless as they use their natural gift to gain success in their own life by manipulating others --philosophers are defined as courageous (courage to give knowledge), high-minded (because they think outside the box), quick learners, selfless people (interested in the well-being of others by providing others with true knowledge of life) --Because these criterias are seen as their natural figts, their family and friends encourage them to enter politics to win money and power ; therefore they are inevitably led away from philosophical life --these ppl are diverted away from philosophical life and corrupted, therefore they are vicous and useless- this is what Socrates says --Other ppl are also included in philosophical life, such as those who lack the right philosophical nature, rush in to fill this gap and become philosophers who have no right to be- vicious --the few good philosophers (not corrupted since they were in exile, lived in small city, were in bad health)- considered useless because society become opposing to correct ideals 8. Forms—truly existing, non-sensible entities that we can access only through abstract thought --Socrates describe a dark scene -group of people lived in deep cave since birth, never seeing light of day --people bound so that cannot look either side or behind them, but only straight ahead --behind them is a fire, behind fire is partial wall; on top of wall are various statues which are manipulated by another group of people, lying out of sight behind the partial wall --because of fire, statues cast shadows across wall that prisoners are facing- prisoners watch stories that these shadows play out and because these shadows are all they ever get to see, they believe them to be most real things in world -- when they talk to one another about men, women, trees, horses, they are referring to these shadows 9. 5 types of cities- aristrocracy, timocracy, oligarchy, democracy, tyranny --Socrates identifies five city-man pairs --aristocracy- highest class, strongest, most powerful, ruling class --timocracy and the honor-driven man who resembles and rules that sort of govnt --oligarchy- resembles and is ruled by man driven by his necessary appetites --democracy—resembles and is ruled by man driven by his unnecessary appetites --tyranny- resembles and is ruled by man driven by his unlawful appetites --each of these constitutions is worse than the other, tyranny being the most wretched form of gov, and tyrannical man-most wretched of men he said 5 types of cities but i only got 4 which are: timocracy, honour driven; democracy, ruled by man driven by unnecessary desires; oligarchy, ruled by man driven by necessary desires; tyranny, ruled by man driven by unlawful desires these are the cities and the types of souls necessary desire: desires we can't train ourselves to overcome they are true human needs unnecessary desires: desires we can train ourselves to overcome according to socrates the tyrannical soul comes after the democratic one, they want freedom, the leader of the revolt becomes a tyrant and kills all the good people and he constantly makes war a tyrant is rule by unlawful desires read book 9 and end of book 8 for more on tyrant man mainly book 9  Why return to the subject of poetry? Considering the whole of the Republic, what is the significance of ending with the Myth of Er? He talks about poets again at the end because now that he define justice and relates poets to justice poets are basically those that think they know everything but they really don't and philosphers are those who have been educated to actually know everything they are rivals which is why its compared in the end poets deal with things that can't be kown to them an
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