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Political Science
Andy Lee

PROPER POLITICAL COMMUNITY Plato – The Republic Aristotle – Politics MIXED CONSTITUTION Aristotle – Politics  democracy & oligarchy = none excluded from gov, both rich & poor participate - wealthy = 1 body, common = another body → jointly gov together - no 1 class can have monopoly over power = multiple centers of power overlapping - mixed form resembles oligarchy = aristocracy; resembles democracy = polity - middle class increases  polity = most correct constitution - b/c cultivate mean, not extreme = avoid giving much power to extreme elements (not poor b/c lack virtue & ability to rule well; not wealthy b/c not willing to submit to law) - secure = give power to middle class/middle constitution b/c they are most secure - stable = way to moderate exercise of political power, opposed to unmixed (power concentrated in 2 group) LAW Aristotle – Politics Nomos (law/convention)  rule of law, not rule of man  theory of law: if law should be supreme, then law is: - reason w/out desire - law has to be inherently rational - logos = true author of law, not humans Marsilius of Padua – The Defender of Peace Lawmaking Will (voluntas)  classically defined = doctrine of right (juris-prudentia) follows Aristotelian outlines  Marsilius defines:  law & states are product of human will; human will creates law & states  1.10.5 “Not all true cognitions of matters of civil justice and benefit are laws unless a coercise command has been given concerning their observance.”  not enough that a rule be intrinsically reasonable/beneficial to common good, there must be commanding lawmaking will in order for there to be law; else we only have suggestions/advice/reasons/wishes for action  voluntarist theory of law = what makes law ‘law’ is that 1 wills it & not b/c it’s intrinsically rational (like Aristotle/Aquinas)  only human legislator’s will counts - ruler’s will doesn’t produce law - unlike legislator, ruler constrained by law - making law ≠ ruling according to law ATTRIBUTES OF POLITICAL LEADERSHIP Who is the ruler? Plato - Republic Power should be exercised by only the best (aristoi) of the complete guardians in society because it is their natural duty to do so, and they are the most eager to pursue what’s advantageous to society while unwilling to do the opposite. These are philosopher-kings, whose minds are the only ones able to grasp the Forms of the intelligible world of changeless absolutes and beauties, especially the Form of the Good. They are also the only class of men to possess knowledge, and their souls, more than others, aim to fulfill the desires of the rational part, making them the most just of all. Only the philosopher should exercise power and others should accept his judgment because only he has experienced all the three types of pleasure –money-loving, honor-loving, and truth-loving, and because pleasures associated with the philosophical are most pleasant and thus that the just life is also most pleasant. Aristotle - Politics Aristotle examined regimes that existed in Greek world to draw conclusions about the merits and drawbacks of each. He distinguished them first according to the number of rulers – one, few, or many, then according to whether those ruling rule in their own interest or in the interest of all. If a regime sought the common advantage – monarchy, aristoc
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