POLB70; midtermnotes.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Political Science
Daniel Lee

Arete virtue Aristocracy a form of government in which a few elite citizens rule rule of the best conceived of as rule by the best qualified citizens the government of the kallipolis is literally an aristocracy; the best must rule Aristoi Comes from ancient Greek the best used to describe noblemen in ancient Greece; those of a status above the common people Autarkeia Self-sufficiency Perfect condition of life in which no aid or support is needed Cave Allegory our nature in its education and want of education related to the theory of forms material world of change known to us through sensation, possess the highest and most fundamental kind of reality Cephalus Introduces the major topic for discussion; the idea of justice Son of lysanias from Syracuse Wealthy metic and elderly arms manufacturer living in Athens who engages in dialogue with Socrates Father of orator lysias, philosopher polemarchus and euthydemus Citizenship (Aristotelian) Thought ideally that citizens needed to know each others characters to best exercise their duties It cant be based on mere residence because resident aliens and slaves are not citizens of the polis, even though they reside in the polis It cant be based on whether or not you have access to the legal process since even foreigners can access the law-courts It cant be based on whether one holds certain privileges or honours from the state since the state sometimes awards honours to foreigners Citizenship in a polis must be based on some other criteria Citizen is defined as one who is entitled to participate in office Has to be exclusive; only those with the proper leisure and ability to take part in public life should be citizens Excluded: women, slaves, children, and workers Class Structure Guardians Auxiliaries Labourers/ money-makers Community of wives One time of the year where ideal men can mate with women If the woman gets pregnant at another time, the child may be killed The man can have multiple spouses Contemplative life vs. active life Contemplative life Which by some is maintained to be the only one worthy of a philosopher Active life Functioning well in those ways that are essential and unique to humans Democracy Forms of government in which all eligible citizens have an equal say in the decisions that affect their lives Allow people to participate equally Either directly or through elected representatives Can never be the best form of rule; rule of demos is necessarily not the best because it is not according to virtue Actually the second-worst form of rule Only one step away from full-blown tyranny Comes about when the poor are victorious killing some of their opponents, expelling others, and giving the rest an equal share in ruling under the constitution, and for the most part assigning people to positions of rule by lot Regime where those who are free, not wealthy, and in the numerical majority are in control of the government Property qualification; only those with a specified amount of property or money can participate in politics Universal participation; the very poor and very wealthy alike, as well as the low-born and the well-born, can all participate in politics Demos People Desire/ appetitive (Platos 3 kinds of desire) Natural and necessary desires Food, shelter, and the like These desires are easy to satisfy, difficult to eliminate, bring great pleasure when satisfied Necessary for life Natural but non-necessary desires Luxury foods Food is needed for survival, but one does not need a particular type of food to survive Vain and empty desires Wealth, fame, power and the like Difficult to satisfy No natural limit Not natural to human beings, but inculcated by society and by false beliefs about what we need Elenchus, elenctic method Distinctive method of reasoning; by questioning Aka the socratic method Not designed to show what we know, but to show what we dont know It is a form of inquiry that proceeds by asking a question and then exploring the different possible ways of answering the question Epistemology Philosophical study of knowledge and belief Ethos Rule of custom Way of life Eudaimonia A supreme good in greek Happiness Cannot be separated from the good life and from the virtueCondition of living well One who is fully human, one who is flourishing and living a wholly complete and good life Can never be achieved in isolation Humans can only be fully happy and complete when they live together with others and do things together and share things together in a community Essentially a social good Form of the Good It has an absolute measure of justice Ultimate object of knowledge, although it is not knowledge itself Things that are just gain their usefulness and value Plato is unable to tell us what it is exactly He does tell us that it is the source of intelligibility and of our capacity to know, and also that it is responsible for bringing all of the other forms into existence Compares its role in the intelligible realm to the role of the sun in the visible realm It is only after he grasps the form of the good that a philosopher in training becomes a philosopher-king Goods (intrinsic vs. instrumental) Intrinsic; something that is valued in itself for its own sake, irrespective of the outcome even if there are bad consequences attached to an intrinsic good, the existence of the good itself is enough to justify valuing it Instrumental; something that is valued not for itself, but for the positive consequences that result from it Eg. Physical training because it produces good health Combination of intrinsic and instrumental; seeing and being healthy Guardians
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