POL B 71 - Exam Review Guide Part 2 - Final Copy.doc

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Political Science
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Margaret Kohn

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POL B 71: Exam Review Guide The exam will be composed of short answers. There will be three types of short answers: questions, quotations, and concepts. For quotations and concepts, you should explain the SOURCE and SIGNIFICANCE of the item. Often the questions can be answered in two or three sentences, but you may want to write a more detailed answer in order to convey the depth of your knowledge. Example: “Though the water running in the fountain be every one’s, yet who can doubt, but that in the pitcher is his only who drew it out?” The key answer is this: John Locke, Second Treatise of Government, explaining how private property emerges from common property through labor. He uses this argument to explain the legitimacy of private property. (This answer would get 8 out of ten points) Extra details that could strengthen your answer (for the full 10 points): • This justification of private property is part of Locke’s response to Filmer, who thought that the theory of the state of nature undermined the security of private property. OR • This defense of private property is an important part of bourgeois ideology (the ideology of the rising commercial classes) OR • The labor theory of private property was also used to justify colonialism in the Americas. __________________________________________________________________ • Positive law, natural law and divine law  On the Indians, Recently Discovered by Victoria  Positive law: the conventions of a specific society o It is posited and sanctioned by some local authority. o It applies to residents, citizens and inhabitants of a place. This form of law also applies to tourists who are in the area.  Natural law: the principles of conduct that are accessible to all men based on reason o Victoria uses natural law to argue that being humans, even the Indians have the right to be treated in a better more equal manner by the Spaniards then they were currently being treated. He also uses natural law to justify the possession of land and property by the Indians.  Divine law: the principles of conduct that are revealed through scripture or faith o Divine law cannot be universally applied according to Victoria. But Victoria’s opponents use divine law to justify the conquest of the Americas by claiming that divine law promotes the spread of Christianity and so should be spread to all places and delivered to all people including the Indians • What are the two bases of the law of nations according to Victoria?  On the Indians, Recently Discovered by Victoria  Derived from natural law or derived from the consensus among nations. • What is Victoria’s main argument against papal title of native lands?  On the Indians, Recently Discovered by Victoria  Papal title refers to the fact that the pope at the time was considered by many to be the ruler of the world and was given powers over the Christian world. As such the Spaniards argued that if the Pope who is ruler of the Christian world sanctions the conquest of the Americas then, the conquest is justified. Victoria argues against this and claims the power of the Pope extends only to the Christian world and over Christians not over non- Christians. As a result, to take away the Indians land, was to steal from them as the pope had no jurisdiction over Indians land and no authority over non-Christians • Name three arguments that Victoria says could justify the Spanish conquest of the Americas.  On the Indians, Recently Discovered by Victoria  Right to travel: everyone including the Spaniards has the right to travel to other people’s lands, and cannot be stopped from doing so insofar as the travelers are not causing hard to the residents of the land. If under such conditions travelers are stopped from entering the land to make use of the land, then conquest is justified. Justifies this by claiming it is a part of the law of nations and therefore applies universally.  Right to commerce and trade: commerce and trade between nations at the time was a common practice and so Victoria saw this right as universally applicable. Therefore if the Indians stop the Spaniards from trading or refuse to trade with them then war is justified.  Universal right to preach: every religion has the right to spread its message and if it does so peacefully and people convert willingly, then the Indians have no right to end the process. Nor do they have any right to harm new converts. If they do, then war is justified • In Book One of Utopia, what are Raphael’s two main arguments against royal service?  Utopia by Thomas More, Book I  Wealth and power are not important  The court is not interested in the public good • What is Raphael’s view of the role of the Philosopher King?  Utopia by Thomas More, Book I  More believes happy state can be established with philosopher king. Thus, for the happy state, philosophers should give kings advice. However, Raphael believes many philosophers advice the king in their published works. Nevertheless, the kings are “deeply infected with wrong ideas in childhood to take any philosopher’s advice.” In this respect, as experience with Dionysius demonstrates, philosopher’s advice would not change kings’ infected wrong ideas and their greedy ambition to conquer more land.  More: Well, just think how infinitely remote that happy state must remain, if philosophers won’t even condescend to give kings a word of advice!  Raphael: “Oh, philosophers aren’t as bad as all that. They’d be only too glad to offer advice – in fact many of them have done so already in their published works – if only people in power would listen to them. And that’s doubtless what Plato meant. He realized that kings are o deeply infected with wrong ideas in childhood to take any philosopher’s advice, unless they became philosophers themselves – as he learned by experience with Dionysius.” • The Enclosure Movement  Utopia by Thomas More, Book I  Thomas More described “the enclosure movement” as problematic aspect of the society. It is the process of privatizing arable land to private land. However, it causes oligopoly by accumulating wealthy for few people by stealing from peasants. “He develops this theory by referring to the political leaders as “bad teachers, who more readily beat their students than educate them”(More,p.11). • Most of Utopia is an argument against private property. What is the main defense of private property that the character More offers in Book One.  Utopia by Thomas More, Book I  More argues that private property increases prosperity (Ppl work harder/more motivated ) • Name three of the physical features of Utopia (the geography or architecture) and explain their significance.  Utopia by Thomas More, Book II  Island was originally a peninsula but a 15-mile channel was dug by King Utopos to separate it from the mainland. Its geographical isolation prevents invasion from the land.  Ports are naturally and artificially protected fortifications. Only Utopians know the waterway to avoid these natural obstacles. Moreover, it can be strategically used to destroy enemy warships.  The capital city, Amaurot, is located directly in the middle of the crescent island. Provides convince for cities in the island. Aircastle central position, maxium 20 mintues apart of distance, each land is not extend or used only for cultivating.  Towns are all identical. Its quality is even higher than Britain. There are no locks on the doors. It indicates the “crime free” environment of Utopia. It contrasts Europe’s crime problems • Explain the utopian system of government.  Utopia by Thomas More, Book II  City is divided into neighbourhoods (30 houses): elected Styward (District Controller)  Bencheaters (elected annually) = town council, magistrates, oversee Stywards  Stywards elect mayor by secret ballot (for life)  Mixed government  Capital crime to discuss public business outside the council  Decentralized, local government • Name three features of the utopian economic system. Explain how one of these features corrected a problem in the existing social system of England.  Utopia by Thomas More, Book II  Each person learns a trade  Everyone can take provisions from collective storehouses  Most children pursue their parents occupation but they can switch  6 hour work days (in Europe most ppl were idle while others overworked) • What features of utopia are most similar to our contemporary arrangements? Which are most different?  Utopia by Thomas More, Book II  Similar o Universal health care o 6 hour work days o Religious toleration/diversity  Different o Utopians wear simple, uniform clothing o Communal means in dining halls • Epicureanism  Utopia by Thomas More, Book II  System of philosophy based on the teachings of Epicurus, an atomic materialist  Attack on superstition and divine intervention  Form of hedonism - declares pleasure as the sole intrinsic good but is different cause it says absence of pain is the greatest pleasure and advocates a simple life • Romanticism  Utopia by Thomas More, Book II  artistic, literary, and intellectual movement  revolt against aristocratic social and political norms of Age of Enlightenment  reaction against the scientific rationalization of nature  embodied most strongly in visual arts, music, and literature and also on historiography, education, and  natural history  Man who lives free, emphasis on nature not cities  Counter enlightenment movement • Describe the utopian religion  Utopia by Thomas More, Book II  number of religions exist in Utopia  similar – all believe in a single god,  different – nature of god; animism, worship of: ancient hero, sun or moon and belief in a single God  all religions practice tolerance of all other religions  many converted to Christianity – treated with respect by other religions  only belief not tolerated is atheism – immoral  if someone does not believe in an afterlife, that person will act selfishly in search of immediate physical and mental pleasure and not act in hope of future reward  Religion in utopia teaches the importance of human happiness defined as pleasure.  Soul is immortal, created by a kind of God who wants humans to be happy.  As long as we all fear the same punishment, and seek the same rewards for good and bad deeds due to belief in the afterlife, heaven and hell. Then religious variantions will not matter.  Monotheistic, but with different religions. There are sun and moon worshippers.  Religious toleration preserves the peace and benefits religion  Can’t force people to convert  Believed that different religions had different ways of presenting the same truth • Name at least two sources of conflict that led to the English Civil Wars.  Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan, Part I  Religious conflict & Political conflict  Religious conflict: King Charles was a strong believer in “divine right” meaning he believed he was chosen by God and Parliament should do whatever he says.  Political conflict: Charles’ religious conventions lead to political conflict between himself and parliament, which eventually led to armies being formed and outbreaks of mass slaughter and violence.  The royalists versus the parliamentarians  Conflict between the King and parliament  Religious Freedom  The Constitution  Social Class  The Problem – Religion provides grounds for disobeying the sovereign  Encourages belief in unverifiable spirits and powers  There is no way to determine the validity of claims made by prophets or through personal revelation  The clergy as gatekeepers to eternal salvation, have excessive power • How did Hobbes’s approach in the Leviathan differ from the political theory of his day?  Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan, Part I  Hobbes wrote the Leviathan in 1651, around the time that the King and Parliament were debating on a number of issues, namely concerning 3 issues: religious freedom (ongoing debate between the Protestants and Catholics), the constitution (division of authority between the King and parliament), and social class (emergence of the middle class due to the industrial revolution who did not want to be taxed). This disagreement escalated into English civil wars (1642-1651) during which many people were killed, property was destroyed and alliances shifted. Parliament was ultimately victorious and King Charles I was executed. Hobbes saw this division of power and struggle between the two sects of government and he realized that the only way to have order and authority was to have power concentrated in one individual so disagreements over authority would not occur—hence, the Leviathan. Furthermore he noted that religion should be a secondary aspect to the state as a private matter with an inward emphasis (but never advocated religious toleration). • “In such condition, there is no place for Industry, because the fruit thereof is uncertain: and consequently no Culture of the Earth; no Navigation…no commodious Building…no Knowledge of the face of the Earth, no account of Time, no Arts, no Letters, no Society, and which is worst of all continual fear of violent death.”  Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan, Part I  Thomas Hobbes, the Leviathan. This quote speaks of the state of nature according to Hobbes. In such a state he argues that no culture or industry would be possible because the only thing everyone would be concerned with would be staying alive and attaining immediate desires. Hobbes rejects Aristotle’s theory of man as a political and social being; instead he posits that man is like an animal constantly seeking to satisfy desires and appetites. Humans desire power, to exert their will on other people in order to further satisfy desires. People have to work together to create industry and to further civilization in a positive direction, however in a state of nature nobody cares for anything but their own desires therefore progress is not possible. • How does Hobbes’s state of nature differ from Locke’s?  Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan, Part I  Hobbes’ state of nature is one of constant fear of violent death. It is “nasty, brutish, and short”, full of uncertainty and violence which is worsened by egotism and overconfidence in one’s self to outwit others for personal gain. People are all equal in one regard or another and it is through this equality that life is so dangerous.  Locke’s state of nature is one of equality and liberty as opposed to absolute freedom to attain personal interests by any means possible. Individuals are rational beings who abide by moral limitations that are innate due to the presence and existence of God. This is not a state of war, as Hobbes’ view is, rather it is a precarious state that is dangerous and insecure but based on reason. • Prisoner’s Dilemma  Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan, Part I  Fundamental problem in game theory that demonstrates why two people might not cooperate even if it is in both their interests to do so.  Often used to illustrate the problem of two states engaged in an arms race.  Use the two prisoner’s example. If both are silent they get 5 years. If both talk they get 10. If one only one talks he gets 2 years other gets 10.  This is proof for the necessity of social contract so that all individuals would not have an opportunity to act in self interest in matters of government, as the Leviathan would hold all the pooled sovereignty from all individuals who would necessarily give up their free will in exchange for a state of peace as opposed to war. • Why is a Leviathan necessary, according to Hobbes?  Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan, Part I  The state of England in the time Hobbes wrote the Leviathan was one of internal division between the monarchy and parliament. Hobbes observed this division and realized that it is due to the each individual’s desire for power based in self interest, even those that control power (i.e. the government). The only way to prevent this observed division is by implementing a single concentrated authority figure, namely a Leviathan. This Leviathan is instated voluntarily by the populace in a mutually binding contract (covenant) by pooling their own sovereignty and giving up all use of force/ coercion to the Leviathan in order to exit the state of nature and enter one of peace. It is important to note that the state of nature does not disappear; instead it is transformed and concentrated in the sovereign who is not subject to the social contract. • First Law of Nature (Hobbes) • Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan, Part I  Each person should seek to live with others in peace • Second Law of Nature (Hobbes) • Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan, Part I  Each person should only retain the right to as much liberty as he or she is willing to allow to others • Name three other Laws of Nature (Hobbes) • Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan, Part I  Each person should abide by the terms of any valid contract which is made with another person.  People should treat each other as equals.  Each person should pardon the mistakes of other persons who have repented for their mistakes • Right of Nature (Hobbes) • Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan, Part I  The liberty each man has to use his own power as he will himself for the preservation of his own nature; that is to say, of his own life; and consequently, of doing anything which, in his own judgment and reason, he shall conceive to be the best means • “Justice dependeth on antecedent covenant” • Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan, Part I  Thomas Hobbes, The Leviathan, explaining the other laws of nature, Men shall keep their covenants once they have made them  Covenant = voluntary mutually binding agreements. Where only one party performs first and there must trust that the other person is going to do their part  The contract symbolizing social unity, is an artificial person, and with this equation Hobbes launches the power iconography of the Leviathan  Was to bind men to their words so that the rules implied by the laws of nature can be made effective in ordering human relationships. Covenant requires each to surrender his natural right to govern himself to a ruler or assembly of rulers who exercise the basic prerogative of rule. • What is a prudential account of justice?  Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan, Part I  The Third Law of Nature: Justice  The third law of nature is “that men perform their covenants made…(431)  “And in this law of nature consists the foundation and original 9source) of Justice.”  “Justice therefore, that is to say, keeping of convenant, is a rule of reason by which we are forbidden to do anything destructive to our life, and consequently a law of nature.” (433)  Key principle is prudence • Why does Hobbes believe that a monarchy is superior to a legislative assembly?  Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan, Part II  In the Leviathan, Hobbes unequivocally argues that absolutist monarchy is the best form of government and the only one that can guarantee peace.  Hobbes establishes absolute monarch not on the basis of natural superiority but on the basis of equality  Monarchy’s are more effective at secrecy than a legislative assembly  A monarch will receive better counsel because he can select experts and obtain their advice in private  In a Monarchy there is less division (leaders can’t take opposing sides; less arguments)  A monarch’s policies will be more consistent because he is of one mind  There is less scope for corruption under an absolute monarchy  A monarch’s interests are the same as the people’s because his political body is the same as his public body (the king’s ‘body’ is both his own natural body and the body of the state – the Leviathan)  Civil car is less likely in a monarchy because the monarch cannot disagree with himself  Succession of sovereign power is more stable in a monarchy because the sovereign can choose his heir and the method of succession • How does Hobbes define freedom and what is the significance of this definition for his theory of the state?  Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan, Part II  Hobbes defines freedom as the ability to carry out one’s will without physical interference from others. His view of freedom is in a more literal scientific sense. If you have the physical ability to do something you are free; the absence of external constraints (limits)  He rejects the idea that social or moral pressure constrains your freedom  Hobbes doesn’t believe freedom is good. If people are free they can do whatever they please. There exists a state of chaos/war in freedom. Hobbes wants an authoritarian type of state where people are enforced to follow a set of rules. Therefore you need to get rid of freedom by entering into a covenant. • “Men have no pleasure in keeping company, where there is no power able to over-awe them all. For every man looketh that his companion should value him, at the same rate he sets upon himself…”  Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan, Part II  Thomas Hobbes, The Leviathan, explaining the natural condition of man as one of continuous war and violence, of death and fear; the natural condition of man is known has the state of nature • What are the passions that incline men to peace, according to Hobbes?  Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan, Part II  Fear of death  Desire for commodious living • What is the difference between Hobbes’s social contract and a constitution?  Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan, Part II  In a contract obligations are exchanged at the same time  In a social contract or a covenant, one person performs first and must trust the other party to perform in the future  In a social contract you are giving up certain natural rights and transferring them to someone else, on the condition that everyone else involved in making the contract also simultaneously gives up their rights.  Hobbes’s social contract is not a constitution.  A social contract imposes no limits or obligations on the sovereign unlike a constitution  In a social contract the sovereign is not a party to the contract • Is Hobbes opposed to the concept of a constitution? Why or why not?  Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan, Part II  Yes Hobbes was opposed to the concept of a constitution: o Hobbes advocated for absolute monarchy over constitutional government o While Hobbes’s name was “justly decried,” he convinced many people in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries to change their views of the proper ends of government – from promoting the higher goods of virtue and salvation to protecting the limited good of life, personal liberty, and property – inaugurating the natural rights principle of modern liberalism that became the basis of an enlightened middle-class materialism or bourgeois” view of morality. o Hobbes never took the step of later liberal thinkers of advocating constitutional limits on state power as the best means for securing life, liberty, and property because he was convinced that fear of the sovereign’s absolute and arbitrary power was the only way to keep people in line. • What could prevent Hobbes’ leviathan from becoming tyrannical?  Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan, Part II  The Sovereign should not be arbitrary; sovereign should promote equity, provide public goods (poor relief) and no one is obliged to sacrifice his own life. A rational man will choose to give up liberty for peace and prosperity • Name three forces that Hobbes thinks tend to weaken a commonwealth.  Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan, Part II  Insufficient power  Individual judgment  Belief in divine inspiration rather than reason. • How does Hobbes respond to the “Atheistic Foole”?  Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan, Part II  Atheistic Foole: a criticism of Hobbes; is the Free rider problem: the foole is someone who believes that a consequence of the principle of self preservation/personal advantage is that one can break covenants and/or violate laws when the risk of discovery is small.  Hobbes insists that it is irrational to free ride but that it is possible in a civil society • Moral economy  John Locke, The Second Treatise of Civil Government  Used as a description of the medieval worldview- moral economy is not like the market economy of today  In the religion of Islam and Christianity: couldn’t charge interest  Some ppl thought time belongs to God; if you charge interest, your charging for time, therefore charging time for God  Prices should reflect the cost of production; not maximization of profit  Shouldn’t charge more time than what ppl are willing to pay  Immoral to increase price when things were scarce  Maximum prices by law for what people can afford to pay • Name four of the key principles of the Medieval world view  John Locke, The Second Treatise of Civil Government  Hierarchy: the mobility, the clergy and the commoner. The concept indicated that these differences were ordained by God and that reflected Gods plan for us. For example, of if ones name was baker then your name was tied to your profession. The idea that there are natural superiors in all areas of life  Corporatism: organized like a body. Different people did certain tasks as arms or legs…connected… some involved in the mind. The organization of society in a way the ppl are not equals but they contribute in different ways  Dispersal (spreading) of power: Around this period of time, there was not a state. Instead there were different institutions. For instance, there were aristocratic families: each of these having their own armies or laws. There was a sense of constant instability at these sources of power. Different institutions had quasi-political power over territories  Summon bonum (highest good): religion – highest good - underlying source of unity equals the common good. The highest good- organizing principle of medieval thought, a way of life that is related to god. • What are the two key features of Locke’s work that identify him as the intellectual founder of liberalism?  John Locke, The Second Treatise of Civil Government  The notion that all people are born equal and that education can free people from the subjugation of tyranny  Believed that government had a moral obligation to guarantee that individuals always retained sovereignty over their own rights, including ownership of property that resulted from their own labour  Separating the realms of Church and State  Arguments concerning liberty and the social contract  Social contract theory: limited government; all citizens have a right to ‘life, liberty and property’  Individual rights: For Locke there is natural law and natural rights (to property, etc) in state of nature. The government is instituted in order to protect these rights, therefore, logically, it cannot violate them. This leads to the right of rebellion b/c people are able to modify the existing government to one that is more responsive to their own rights. The rule of law creates a principle that justifies this, but doesn’t cause chaos.  Religious toleration • Exclusion Crisis  John Locke, The Second Treatise of Civil Government  Crisis of 1680’s  Period of intense political strife during 1679-81 generated by the attempt to bar Charles II’s catholic brother James, duke of York, from the succession due to his religion being catholic as opposed to protestant  Law was passed banning Catholics from becoming Kings of England after
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