Describe different degrees of public involvement in the planning process. What is the potential
of advocacy planning and community organizing to strengthen the voice and increase the power
of marginalized communities in the urban planning and policy making process? Illustrate your
answer by discussing the Commitment 2 Community campaign against social service cuts in the
City of Toronto in 2011/2012.
Public involvement can range from consultation to participation
public involvement is involving citizens decision-making process of a municipality.
During the early years of planning those impacted by planning decisions would be
notified by authorities. Public would be informed via advertisements, newspaper notice
or just a sign on the property that will be developed.
Public involvement characterized to have 3 elements: Decide, Announce, Defend—This
means that decision makers announce a plan and planners must defend and explain
In 1970s, community programs were implemented in regards to citizen action that
actively engaged residents. For example Neighbourhood Improvement Program
supported by Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation allowed residents with the
planning to invest in basic infrastructure in old urban neighbourhoods.
Citizens become active planning partners aiding with advising policy directions; To
Harry Lash this approach taken in Vancouver coined the phrase “planning the human
Harry Lash uses a triangle of participation to describe equal partnership between
planners, politicians, and public
1990s consensus building became popular: Developing out of healthy communities and
sustainable development approaches and supported by communicative theory in planning.
Recent years have brought greater interest in design.
Visioning processes include community residents in long-term projection of urban futures
became of a popular way of setting goals
Challenging because planning process involves managing disagreements about future of
Public involvement: (Sherry Arnstein ladder of participation: Varying degree of power
along a ladder; “ladder” model shows range of involvement)
In Alberta public involvement is required during drafting of statutory plans, amending
land use bylaws
Degree of public involvement