POLB71 Exam guide part 1

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Political Science
Margaret Kohn

POL B 71: Exam Review Guide The exam will be composed of short answers. There will be three types of short answers: questions, quotations, and concepts. For quotations and concepts, you should explain the SOURCE and SIGNIFICANCE of the item. Often the questions can be answered in two or three sentences, but you may want to write a more detailed answer in order to convey the depth of your knowledge. Example: “Though the water running in the fountain be every one’s, yet who can doubt, but that in the pitcher is his only who drew it out?” The key answer is this: John Locke, Second Treatise of Government, explaining how private property emerges from common property through labor. He uses this argument to explain the legitimacy of private property. (This answer would get 8 out of ten points) Extra details that could strengthen your answer (for the full 10 points): • This justification of private property is part of Locke’s response to Filmer, who thought that the theory of the state of nature undermined the security of private property. OR • This defense of private property is an important part of bourgeois ideology (the ideology of the rising commercial classes) OR • The labor theory of private property was also used to justify colonialism in the Americas. __________________________________________________________________ 1. Positive law, natural law and divine law  Positive law may be passed, adopted or posited by an official entity with authority by the government to prescribe the rules and regulation for a particular community  The conventions of a specific society  Posited by some local authority  It applied to residents, citizens and inhabitants of that place, and even the travelers or tourists in the area  Hobbes rejected the traditional higher law and encouraged people to accept the established laws & customs of their nations even if they seemed oppressive, for the sake of civil peace and security.  Hobbes view has been leading to the cause of the demise (death) of natural law and the acceptance of positive law as the only reliable guide for political authority.  Natural law: the principles of conduct that are accessible to all men based on reason  The system of law is supposedly determined by nature and thus universal  The principle of body of laws considered as derived from nature, right reason, or religion and as ethically binding in human society  In Natural law reason is used to analyze human nature  Victoria uses natural law to argue that being humans, even the Indians have the right to be treated in a better more equal manner by the Spaniards then they were currently being treated. He also uses natural law to justify the possession of land and property by the Indians.  Divine Law- is law according to religious belief or faith, it comes directly from the will of God, in contrast to man-made law. Somewhat like natural law it is independent of the will of man, who cannot change it.  Victoria’s opponent use divine law to justify the conquest of the Americas by claiming that divine law promotes the spread of Christianity and so should be spread to all places and delivered to all people including Indians. 2. What are the two bases of the law of nations according to Victoria?  Derived from natural law or derived from the consensus among nations. 3. What is Victoria’s main argument against papal title of native lands?  The question is based on the article- On the Indians, recently discovered by Victoria  Papal title refers to the fact that the pope at the time was considered by many to be the ruler of the world and was given power over the Christian world.  As such the Spaniards argues that if the Pope who is ruler of the Christian would sanctions the conquest of the Americas then, the conquest (defeat) is justified.  Victoria argues against this and claims the power of the Pope extends only to the Christian world and over Christians not over non-Christians  As a result, to take away the Indians land, was to steal from them as the pope had no jurisdiction over Indians land and no authority over non-Christians. 4. Name three arguments that Victoria says could justify the Spanish conquest (defeat) of the Americas.  Right to travel- everyone including the Spaniards has the right to travel to other people’s lands, and cannot be stopped from doing so insofar as the travelers are not causing hard to the residents of the land. If under such conditions travelers are stopped from entering the land to make use of the land, then conquest is justified. Justifies, this by claiming it is a part of the law of nationals and therefore applied universally.  Right to commerce and Trade- commerce and trade between nationals at the time was a common practice and so Victoria saw this right as universally applicable. Therefore if the Indians stop the Spaniards from trading or refuse to trade with them then war is justified.  Universal right to preach- every religion has the right to spread its message and if it does so peacefully and people converts willingly then the Indians have no right to end the process. Nor do they have any right to harm new coverts. If they do, then war is justified. 5. In Book One of Utopia, what are Raphael’s two main arguments against royal service?  In Utopia Book 1 his argument was that wealth and power both are not important  The court is not interested in the public good  Equality is important to establish peace and prosperity  And laws and supervisors are also needed supervise and maintain the peace 6. What is Raphael’s view of the role of the Philosopher King?  Utopia by Thomas More Book 1  More believes in the Philosopher king and hence he argued that a happy state can be established with a philosopher king.  Hence for a happy state, philosophers should give kings advice  However Rapheal argues that because kings are deeply infected with wrong ideas in childhood to take any philosopher’s advice and thus the advice of an experienced philosopher does not change kings infected wrong ideas and their greedy ambition to conquer more land  More believes that how infinitely remote that happy state remain, if philosophers wont even condescend to give kinds a word of advice  Raphael says: Oh philosophers aren’t as bad as all that. They’d be only too glad to offer advice- in fact many of them have done so already in their published works- if only people in power would listen to them. And that’s doubtless what Plato meant. He realized that kings are so deeply infected with wrong ideas in childhood to take any philosopher’s advice, unless they become philosophers themselves- as he by experience with Dionysius 7. The Enclosure Movement • Utopia by Thomas More • Thomas More described “the enclosure movement” as problematic aspect of the society. It is the process of privatizing arable land to private land. • This causes oligopoly by accumulating wealthy for few people by stealing from peasants: He develops this theory by referring to the political leaders as “bad teachers, who more readily beat their students than educate them” More page 11 8. Most of Utopia is an argument against private property. What is the main defense of private property that the character More offers in Book One. • Utopia by Thomas More Book 1 • More argues that private property increases prosperity (people work harder/ they are motivated to achieve better results) 9. Name three of the physical features of Utopia (the geography or architecture) and explain their significance. 10. • Utopia by Thomas More, Book 2 • Island was originally a peninsula but a 15 mile channel was dug by Kig Utopos to separate it from the mainland. Its geographical isolation prevents invasion from the land • Resembled the UK somewhat • Ports are naturally and artificially protected forfications. Only Utopians know the waterway to avoid these natural obstacles. It can also be used stragically to destroy enemy warships • The Capital Amanrot, is located directly in the middle of the crescent island. Provides convince for cities in the island. Air castle central position max 20 minutes part of distance, each land is not extent or used only for cultivating. • Towns are all identical. Its quality is even higher than Britain. These are no locks on the doors. It indicates the “crime free” environment of Utopia. It contrasts Europe’s crime problems 11. Explain the utopian system of government. • Utopia by Thomas More, Book 2 • City is divided into neighborhoods (30 houses); elected Styward (Distinct Controller) • Bencheaters (elected annually) – town council, magistrates, oversee Stywards • Styward elect mayor by secret ballot (for life) • Mixed government • Every recent problem is discussed a few days later to solve it with a fresh calm mind • Each supervisor has another supervisor over him • It’s a mixed government • Decentralized local government 12. Name three features of the utopian economic system. Explain how one of these features corrected a problem in the existing social system of England. • The problem of classes and inequality existed in Britain. This was solved by removing the concept of private property and guaranteeing total equality to all citizens • Work hours are equally distributed to assure less work and happiness and again equality • Government takes control of the food and hence there is no scope for greediness as there is no money and no motivation to own a property. • Each person learns a trade • Everyone can take provisions from collective storehouses • Most children purpue their parents occupation but they can switch 13. What features of utopia are most similar to our contemporary arrangements? Which are most different? • Utopia by Thomas More, Book 2 • Similar: Universal health care, Universal toleration/diversity, supervisors exist even today • Different: 6 hour work load divided between each, uniform clothing, privatization, communal means in dining, the traveling concept, money and greed exists today 14. Epicureanism • Utopia by Thomas More, Book 2 • System of Philosophy based on the teaching of Epicurus, an atomic materialist • Attack on superstition and divine intervention • Form of hedonism- declares pleasure as the sole intrinsic good but is different cause it says absence of pain is the greatest pleasure and advocates a simple life 15. Romanticism • Utopia by Thomas more, Book 2 • Artistic, literary and intellectual movement • Revolt again aristocratic social and political norms of Age of enlightenment • Reaction against the scientific rationalization of nature • Embodied most strongly in visual arts, music and literature and also on historiography, education, and natural history • Man who lives free, emphasis on nature not cities • Counter enlightenment movement 16. Describe the utopian religion • Utopia by Thomas More, Book 2 • Number of religions exist in Utopia • Similar- all believe in a single god • Different- nature of god, animisn, worshship of; ancient hero; sun or moon and belief in a single God • All religions practice toleration of all other religions • Many converted to Christianity- treated with respect by other religions • Only belief not tolerated is atheism- immoral • If someone does not believe in an afterlife, that person will act selfishly in search of immediate physical and mental pleasure and not act in hope of future reward • Religion in Utopia teaches the importance of human happiness defined as pleasure • Soul is immortal, created by a kind of God who wants humans to be happy • As long as we all fear the same punishment, and seek the same rewards for good and bad deeds due to belief in the afterlife, heaven and hell. Then religious variations will not matter • It is also believed that God likes and wants people to worship him in di
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