Polb71 Exam Notes part 2.docx

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Political Science
Margaret Kohn

1. What is the difference between Hobbes’s social contract and a constitution?  Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan, Part 2  In a contract obligations are exchanged at the same time  In social contract or a covenant, one person performs first and must trut the other party to perform in the future  In social contract you are giving up certain natural rights and transferring them to someone else, on the condition that everyone else involved in making the contract also simultaneously gives up their rights in order to create a peaceful environment  Hobbes social contract is not a constitution  Its more of an agreement or a deal  A social contract imposes no limits or obligations on the sovereign unlike a constitution  In social contract the sovereign is not a party to the contract 2. Is Hobbes opposed to the concept of a constitution? Why or why not?  Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan Part 2  Yes Hobbes was opposed to the concept of a constitutional:  Hobbes supported (advocated) for absolute monarchy over constitutional government  While Hobbes’s name was “justly decried (criticized)”he convinced many people in the seventeenth and eitheenth centuries to change their views of the proper ends of governments- from promoting the higher goods of virtue and salvation to protecting the limited good of life, personal liberty, and prosperity- in guaranteeing the natural rights principle of modern liberalism that became the basis on an enlightened middle- class materialism or bourgeois “view of morality”  Hobbes never took the step of later liberal thinkers of advocating constitutional limits on state power as the best means for securing life, liberty and property because he was convinced that fear of the sovereign’s absolute and arbitrary power was the only way to keep people in line 3. What could prevent Hobbes’ leviathan from becoming tyrannical?  Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan Part 2  The sovereign should not be arbitrary; sovereign should promote equity, provide public goods (poor relief) and no one is obliged to sacrifice his own life. A ration man will choose to give up liberty for peace and prosperity 4. Name three forces that Hobbes thinks tend to weaken a commonwealth.  Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan, Part 2  Insufficient power  Individual judgment  Belief in divine inspiration rather than reason 5. How does Hobbes respond to the “Atheistic Foole”?  Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan Part 2  Atheistic Foole: a criticism of Hobbes; is the free rider problem: the foole is someone who believes that a consequence of the principle of self-preservation/personal advantage is that one can break covenants and violate laws when the risk of discovery is small  Hobbes insists that it is irrational to free ride but that it is possible in a civil society 6. Moral economy  John Locke, the second treatise of civil government  Used as a description of the medieval worldview- moral economy is not the market economy or today  In the religion of Islam and Christianity: couldn’t charge interest  Some people thought time belongs to God: if you charge interest, you are charging for time, therefore charging time for God  Prices should reflect the cost of production: not maximization of profit  Shouldn’t charge more time than what people are willing to pay  Immoral to increase price when things were scarce  Maximum prices by law for what people can afford to pay 7. Bourgeois ideology 8. How does Locke’s theory of property strengthen or weaken arguments about colonialism in North America? 9. The sufficiency proviso (Locke) 10. How does Locke defend the right to private property? 11. Name four of the key principles of the Medieval world view  John Locke, the second treatise of civil government  Hierarchy: the mobility, the clergy and the commoner. The concept indicated that these differences were ordained by God and that reflected Gods plan for us. For example, of if ones name was tied to your profession. The idea that there are natural superiors in all areas of life  Corporatism: organized like a body. Different people did certain tasks as arm or legs ..connected…some involved in the mind. The organization of society in a way that people are not equal but they contribute in different ways  Dispersal (spreading) of power: Around this period of time, there was not a state. Instead there were aristocratic families each of these having their own armies or laws. There was a sense of constant instability at these sources of power. Different institutions had quasi- political power over territories.  Summon bonum (highest good)- religion- highest good- underlying source of unity equals the common good. The highest good-organizing principle of medieval thought, a way of life that is related to God. 12. What are the two key features of Locke’s work that identify him as the intellectual founder of liberalism?  John Locke, the Second treatise of civil government  The notion that all people are born equal and that education can free people from the subjugation of tyranny  Believed that government had a moral obligation to guarantee that individuals always retained sovereignty over their own rights, including ownership of property that resulted from their own labor.  Separating the realms of Church and State  Arguments concerning liberty and social contract  Social contract theory: limited government, all citizens have a right to life, liberty and property  Individual rights: for Locke there is natural law and natural rights (to property, etc.) in state of nature. The government is instituted in order to protect these rights, therefore, logically, it cannot violate them. This leads to the right of rebellion b/c people are able to modify the existing government to one that is more responsive to their own rights. The rule of law creates a principle that justifies this, but doesn’t cause chaos  Religious toleration 13. Exclusion Crisis  John Locke, The Second Treatise of Civil Government  Crisis of 1680’s  Period of intense political strife during 1679-81 generated by the attempt to bar Charles 2’s Catholic brother James, duke of York, from the succession due to his religion being catholic as opposed to potestant  Law was passed banning Catholics from becoming Kings of England after it was discovered that Charles 2 had no heir to the throne and the James Stauaty would be the next heir 14. What is the main idea of Sir Filmer’s Patriarcha?  John Locke, The second treatise of civil government  Political authority was derived from religious authority which was a very dominant th theory in the 17 century Enlang  Sir Filmer’s states that in the bible God gives dominion authority given to his decedens. Therefore all people are given authority  Filmers states that if one does not adopt order of father (God) over family…there is going to be fighting for dominance and as a result there will be constant anarchy  Implication that monarchy is the only form of authority-everything else is derived from that authority 15. Why does Locke think individuals would choose to leave the state of nature and form a commonwealth?  John Locke, The Second Treatise of Civil Government  To protect property  To get a known and fair judge  To get a power to enforce judgments 16. “But though this (e.g. the state of nature) be a state of liberty, yet it is not a state of license.”  John Locke, The second Treatise of Civil government  The conduct of individuals is guided by laws of nature  People can do whatever they want, under these conditions  Significance: it claims that it is the best interest of people to give up some individual freedoms to form a commonwealth based on social contract 17. “The labor of his body, and the work of his hands, we may say, are property his….Thus the grass my horse has bit; the turfs my servant has cut; and the ore I have digged in any place, where I have a right to them in common with others, become my property, without the assignation or consent of any body.”  John Locke, The second Treatise of Civil government  Labor produced and justified private property (which is limited that does not harm others)  Money undermine these natural limits  Greater productivity benefits the rich and the poo  Common labor in England is better off than the indigenous people 18. Amour propre vs. amour de soi  Jean Rousseau, Discourse on the Origin and Foundation of Inequality  Rousseau’s two forms of self-love  Amour propre: is an unnatural self-lobe and is a negative product of the socialization process. It is a love of self that depends on comparing oneself with others. Basing his or her self-worth on a perceived superiority to another. It breeds: competition, self- comparison with others, hatred, urge for power  Amour de soi: a natural form of self-love that in that it does not depend on others. Rousseau claims that by our nature, each of us has this natural feeling of
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