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Political Science

POLC88H3: FINAL EXAM REVIEW SECTION 1 TERMS: 1) Fundamentalism *Fundamentalism is strict adherence to any set of basic ideas or principles, and because of this, religious conflicts arise. Religious differences hold the potential to make existing conflicts more intractable, because religions involve core values, which are held as absolute truth. This is increasingly true as fundamentalist movements have gained strength in recent decades. The reason for fundamentalism is disputed, but is clearly a global-level phenomenon. Members of these movements organize their lives and communities around their religious beliefs; many are willing to sacrifice, kill, and die for those beliefs. Fundamentalist movements have become larger and more powerful in recent decades in Christianity, Islam, Judaism, and other religions. Fundamentalist movements challenge the values and practices of secular political organizations those created apart from religious establishments. The secular practices threatened by fundamentalist movements include the rules of the international system, which treat states as formally, equal and sovereign whether they are “believers” or “infidels”. Examples: IN 2002, burning, torturing, and raping by Hindu nationalist extremists killed nearly a thousand Muslims in India’s Gujarat state, where the Hindu nationalist party controls the state government. In Israel, Jewish fundamentalist have used violence, including the assassination of Israel’s own prime ministers in 1995 to derail Palestinian- Israeli peace negotiations. (Pg. 168, Goldstein). 2) Interdependence * Interdependence is a political and economic situation in which two states are simultaneously dependent on each other for their well-being. The degree of interdependence is sometimes designated in terms of “sensitivity” or “ vulnerability”. Liberal theories believe that interdependence is one answer to peace and cooperation. Kant answers, that trade promotes peace, relies on the presumption that trade increases wealth, cooperation, and global well-being—all while making conflict less likely in the long term because governments will not want to disrupt any process that adds to the wealth of their state. Moreover, as trade between states increases, they will find that they become mutually dependent on one other for goods. This mutual dependence between states is referred to as economic interdependence. On the other hand, realist are skeptical of the peace- promotes- trade argument, however, arguing that one state’s reliance on another creates more tensions in the short term because states are nervous that another actor has an important source of leverage over them. Realists point to the fact that arguments about interdependence and peace we common prior to WW1, yet war occurred anyway. (Pg. 87, Goldstein).3) Migration *Migration is movement between states, usually emigration from the old state and immigration to the new state. Basic needs deprivation, displacement form land, and urbanization – culminate in one of the biggest political issues affecting North- South relations: migration from poorer to richer states. Millions of people from the global South have crossed international borders, often illegally, to reach the North. Someone who moves to a new country in search of better economic opportunities, a better professional environment, or better access to his or her family, culture, or religion is engaging in migration (voluntary migration). The home state is not under any obligation to let such people leave, and, more important, no state is obligated to receive migrants. As with trade issue, migration creates complex patterns of winners and losers. Immigrants often provide cheap labor, benefiting the host economy overall, but also competes for jobs with (poor) citizens of the host country. An example of migration is Dadaab. Migration is occurring from Somalia to Kenya because of the drought in Somalia. Currently, Dadaab is the largest refugee camp. Obviously, this migration is involuntary, it is occurring because of weather conditions. (Goldstein, pg. 435). 4) Refugees * Refugees are people fleeing their countries to find refuge form war, natural disaster, or political persecution. International law distinguishes them from migrants. International norms obligate countries to accept refugees who arrive at their borders. Refugees from wars or natural disasters are generally housed in refugee camps temporarily until they can return home. Refugees are both a result of international conflict and a source of conflict. In addition to those fleeing war and repression and those seeking economic opportunity, hundred of thousands of people each year cross borders as sex and labor slaves. The most politicized refugee problem for decades has been that of Palestinians displaced in the 1948 and 1967 Arab- Israeli wars. They live in “camps” that have become long-term neighborhoods, mainly in Jordan, Lebanon, and the Palestinian territories of Gaza and the West Bank. The poverty of the refugees in turn fuels radical political movement among the inhabitant. 5) Tragedy of the Commons * Tragedy of the commons is a collective goods dilemma that is created when common environmental assets (such as the world’s fisheries) are depleted or degraded through the failure of states to cooperate effectively. One solution is to “enclose” the commons (split them into individually owned pieces); international regimes can also be a (partial) solution. Centuries ago, the commons were shared grazing land in Britain. As with fisheries, if too many people kept too many sheep, the commons would be overgrazed. Yet adding one more sheep was more profitable to that sheep’s owner. Britain solved the problem by enclosure of the commons – splitting into privately owned pieces on each of which a single owner would have an incentive to manage resources responsibly. This relates to the global commons to share parts of the earth, such as the ocean and outer space.6) Regional Integration * Regional integration is a process in which states enter into a regional agreement in order to enhance regional cooperation through regional institutions and rules. The objectives of the agreement could range from economic to political, although it has generally become a political economy initiative where commercial purposes are the means to achieve broader socio-political and security objectives. It could be organized either on a supranational or an intergovernmental decision-making institutional order, or a combination of both. Past efforts at regional integration have often focused on removing barriers to free trade in the region, increasing the free movement of people, lab
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