History of Development Ideas:
The beginning of the era of development: the Marshall Plan (1947) - to rebuild the war
torn countries of Europe after World War 2.
A timeline of development ideas
1950s: all about modernization, progress, growth, urbanization and the third world
concept was born. Emphasized economic growth. Development = industrialization,
westernization. The idea of the third world was born. You were either first, second or
third. It was very different from the way they spoke about it.
1960s and 1970s: rural development + agriculture, underdevelopment, dependency, state
led growth and industrialization. Led by the peasants. Agriculture became important.
Advances in the north were only possible because of the exploitation of the south and
redistribution for equity and fairness.
1980s: the debt crisis, neo liberal economics, structural adjustment.
-Heavily dependent on borrowed money.
-Trying to emphasize the market not the state.
1990s: about the environment, gender, indigenous rights, grass roots development,
globalization and resistance.
-Dissatisfaction with the state and the role of civil society as the important society.
Indigenous peoples thoughts.
-Globalization and inter connectiveness became important.
-Local and global riots.
2000s: post colonialism, post Washington consensus, post neo liberalism.
-Analysis of the past 15 years. It’s just a hoax. A mix and don't know where to go and
deal with it.
-An evolution of ideas of poverty and social change.
Participatory Action Research:
Participatory action research: aims to help people to investigate reality to change it -
people's research for action
Mainstream research vs. participatory research:
Mainstream: the specialist
→The researcher as experts (your own data)
→For the benefits of the researcher
→Researcher as facilitator →Inter change of information between the mainstream and the community,
→Individual ownership (shared knowledge)
→For the benefit of the community
→Process oriented - skills
→Progressive and meaningful and more likely to succeed if grounded in social reality
and new knowledge
→Can bring about change
→Not likely to lead to prestigious publications
→Lack of funding
→Constraints of strength of time
→Lacks scientific rigor
Indigenization of Dev. Theory:
Indigenization of dev theory: theory that is rooted in the historical and social experiences
of countries of the global south. We need to incorporate local knowledge and experience.
⇒Step 1 - deconstruct our present dev paradigms to sort out if anything remains relevant
to the south and discard the rest.
⇒Step 2 - reconstruct our dev frameworks to better serve the interests and needs of the
people of the south.
Linear Stages of Development:
Rostow's Linear Stages of Economic Growth
1) Traditional society: Societies cultures pre-scientific and agricultural based.
2) Pre conditions for takeoff which means the equilibrium is challenged by science or
foreign commerce or invasion by a colonizer for instant.
3) The takeoff occurs: when a political power accrues to a group that regards economic
growth as key for example a capitalist class.
4) The drive to maturity: the period in which countries become active. They become
active participants in international markets.
5) The age of high mass consumption. There is finally redistribution; the fruits of growth
are finally transferred to the masses. Is there another stage beyond this?
Volunteer simplicity: a movement to give up everything and go back to nature and be in
touch with your communities more.
Prescriptions for Change
1- To reject traditional values in favour of western values
Hypothesis: countries with stronger traditions of democracy, capitalism, and secularism
should experience greater economic growth and dev than those without. Example: china
2- Follow the course charted by the west
Hypothesis: countries of the south should experience a similar historical trajectory of dev
of those of the north but at an accelerated pace.
3- Ties to the core, hang out with developed countries if you want to be developed
Hypothesis: countries closer in proximity and through commercial ties to the core powers
should be more developed.
4- Policy change in the south; reformers
-More aid, better technology, etc.
Hypothesis: countries that more closely follow the policy prescriptions of the world bank,
the IMF and the international financial institutions should be more developed than those
that do not.
5- Continued economic growth in the north
Hypothesis: countries of the south should experience peaks of growth and dev when the
poor countries are performing well economically.
Contributions and Criticisms
→Optimistic, well specified, precise in some ways
→Call for aid assistance
→It did work once
→Neglects colonial history
→Neglects struggle exploitation in the north
→Too broad and generalized
→Neglects diversity/ heterogeneity in the south
→Recipe for environmental disaster
→Attainability →Uni directional - concept of dev itself
Institutionalist Explanations of Dev (neo modernizationists)
Have shifted focus away from dev toward the maintenance of political order.
Huntington's contribution to the literature: changed scholarly attention into political
change. Offered a highly theoretical approach to explaining revolution based on the role
of political institutions
His hypothesis is called the political gap hypothesis: revolutions and revolts tend to occur
in countries where the development of political institutions cannot keep pace with rapid
socio economic changes. He made an open and unpopular commitment to the
maintenance of order as the supreme political value.
Huntington's argument: the top priority of policy makers should be to strengthen
political institutions to ensure stability and development.
New institutionalism suggests that institutions are capable of shaping political outcomes,
institutions create incentives for social actors to behave in certain ways by structuring the
rules of the game.
Has the capacity to explain and predict societal responses by examining the rules of the
Not as useful for our understanding of dev in countries where there is no guarantee that
actors follow the rules of the game.
Cardosa's contribution to the literature: the theoretical concept of dependent development
(that limited forms of dev are possible within poor nations despite their subordination by
wealthier nations and a capitalist system)
Prescriptions for change:
2 major differences: full scale socialist revolution in the south (also known as overthrow
capitalism) and state led dev (as known as reform capitalism)
Contributions and Criticisms:
1) Critical normative posture
2) Microscopic in patterns - broad patterns (relationships with the poor) also offers a devastating critique to main stream dev thinking
1) limited influence on policy making
2) immensely p