POLC99 Final Exam Study Guide

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Political Science
R Rice

POLC99 EXAM STUDY GUIDE DISPOSSESSION Referred to the sense of injustice having import taken away land, good natural resources and opportunity rights. Edward Said (1994) the politics of disposed the struggle for Palestinian self-determination David Harveu accumulation by dispossession neo-liberal politics in African America, disparity in wealth, rights taken away Communal land was taken away by privatization, workers = dispossessed from the right to unionize, from their livelihood Argentina, Bolivia, Equador COLONIAL SOCIERTY COLONIAL INSIUTIONS Legacies of Colonial Society The changing face of people in Latin America. 3 ethnic groups: indigenous peoples, Africans and Europeans. Social pyramid: Europeans at the top: 2% Peninsulares: white born in Europe (SpainPortugal) Criolloscreoles: whites born in the new world Mestizos: Indigenous and European ancestry Mulatto: African and European ancestry, they were considered even worse than pure Africans since they inherited the worst of genes. Indigenous and African: 95%. Contemporary Latin America Upper class: 5%10% (descendants of the Europeans) Middle Class: 10%25% (mixed ancestry, immigrants from other countries) Lower Class: 65%85% (Mulato, Africans). Your status is largely determined by your race. You can whiten yourself by becoming an actor or a soccer star, by attaining status in society, fame through the military, etc. Institutions Characteristics were feudal and medieval. At the top were the King and Queen of Europe. The colonial authority was the vice roy lived in the colonies and represented the King and the Queen. Below him was the Captain General who ran municipalities. At the bottom level (local level) were the large landowners. The Catholic Church was an arm of the state and transcended through all the hierarchy. The church had control over the educational system. Latin American was born feudal in terms of having all these institutions in place. COLONIAL LAND AND LABOUR SOCIAL QUESTION Spanish conquistadors were the 2nd and 3rd sons from back home. Only the 1st son could inherit the properties in Portugal and Spain. They stood no chance of inheriting land back in Europe. The landlords (patronsharendado) owned haciendaslatifundos (huge feudal landed estates). www.notesolution.comEncomienda System: The right to use native peoples on your newfound land in exchange for Christianizing them. Micro fundio System: small farm of less than 2 hectares. Freehold indigenous communities lived on these plots of land. They had to work for the landlord because it wasnt enough land to grow crops and live well. They had to approach the patrons and work for him. Labour in exchange for subsistence pay. Repartimiento System: practice of requiring indigenous groups to set aside a specified number of months for free labour. Either works for the private (i.e. hacienda) or public sector (i.e. state infrastructure). Each male had to do that for 7 years. It was a form to disguise slavery. The Era of the Social Question: The debate over the appropriate role of the working classes with the political economical system in Latin America. What do we do with the workers? DO we include them or do we repress them? CORPORATISM was the answer: a system of interest group representation where the states decided how to organize society, usually through peak trade unions (1930s). Late, peak peasant association (1960s). The state can structure how the state should be organized. Youre either a peasant or a worker. Youre just a working class, not a woman or religious person. If you support our policies, well make sure the payout and pensions. Peasants didnt fully come on board until the 1960s. Corporatism is a system of economic, political, or social organization that views a community as a body based upon organic social solidarity and functional distinction and roles amongst individuals. Corporatism is related to the sociological concept of structural functionalism. Corporate social interaction is common within kinship groups such as families, clans and ethnicities. Political scientists may also use the term corporatism to describe the process of licensing and regulation by a state for incorporating social, religious, economic, or popular organizations into a single collective body. SECONDARY GENERATION REVOLUTIONS Political Revolution: seeks to transform the state, but not economic or social strives (e.g. wars of independence. Second Generation Revolutions: revolutions carried out in the Global South in post WWII period. Sociological Model by Wickham-Crowley: seeks to explain the social conditions for the expansion and the success of 2nd Generation revolutions. Necessary and sufficient conditions: 1. Strong and sustained peasant support 2. Sufficient military strength (strength of the government and revolutionary group) 3. Mass loyalty to the revolutionary movement. Agency Model by McClintock: focuses on the revolutionary movements, ideology, strategy, structure, and leadership. www.notesolution.com
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