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Political Science
Waldemar Skrobacki

Definitions 23. Mercosur: Established in 1991 and updated in 1994, it is the free trade agreement between Uraguay, Paraguay, Brazil, and Argentina and has welcomed other nations, including Peru, Bolivia, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, and in 2006, Venezuela. The trading blocr nations have only partial membership in the trade agreement. Mercosur has lowered tariffs for all member nations, but most notably in 2005 for Columbia, which is now able to bring products and services to more than 200 million people who would not have had access previous to Mercosur. 24. MNCs: Multinational corporations (MNCs) in their most basic sense are firms that not only export their products to other countries but have also established sourcing supplies of materials, production, marketing, and managerial operations in countries other than their home base. The basic idea is not new but in recent years MNCs have become so big and powerful that authors such as Hertz (2001) argue they may be a threat to democracy. 25. Multilevel Politics: many authoritary structures at work in the emergent global political economy, found in the EU with the development of the Maastricht Treaty 1992 26. North Atlantic Treaty Organization NATO: Head quarters location in Belgium and Brussels consisting of an organization constituting a system of defense. Increased ties with the United States. Definitions Sovereignty The condition of a state being free from any higher legal authority. It is related to, but distinct from, the condition of a government being free from any external political constraints. It involves the entitlement to exclusive, unqualified, and supreme rule within a delimited territory. It is the founding covenant of world politics. Many argue that contemporary globalization presents a fundamental challenge to the Westphalian ideal of sovereign statehood and in so doing is transforming world order. The current notion of state sovereignty is often traced back to the Treaty of Westphalia (1648), which, in relation to states, codified the basic principles of territorial integrity, border inviolability, and supremacy of the state (rather than the Church). Special Drawing Rights International foreign exchange reserve assets. It is allocated to nations by the International Monetary Fund. It represents a claim to foreign currencies for which it may be exchanged in times of need. The US Dollar is the worlds primary foreign exchange reserve asset today therefore Special Drawing Rights are www.notesolution.comnot used as much. Special Drawing Rights are also the International Monetary Funds unit of account (SDRs). Structural Funds Funds allocated by the EU as parts of its regional policy. Structural Funds are made up of the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) and the European Social Fund (ESF). It aims to reduce regional disparities in terms of income, wealth and opportunities. Europes poorer regions receive most of the support, but all European regions are eligible for funding under the policys various funds and programmes. Samuel Huntington An American political scientist who is known for his thesis of a post-cold war new world order. Huntington argues that, as societies modernize, they become more complex and disordered. If the process of social modernization that produces this disorder is not matched by a process of political and institutional modernizationa process which produces political institutions capable of managing the stress of modernizationthe result may be violence. 19-Just War Tradition (JWT) (pg.201, 288) -is a set of guideline for determining and judging when states may have an option to go war -JWT also applies moral limits in war, which include limiting harm that sates can commit against other states (civilians) -consists of two parts which are: jus ad bellum (justice of war) and the jus in bello (the justice in war) -the bellum means the occasion of going to war, and the bello refers to the means, weapons and tactics used in war -JWTs aim is to limit wars by restricting the types of justification that are acceptable 20-Least Developed Countries (LDCs) -LDCs are countries which have low development and has a low human development index rating -in 2009, there were 49 countries classified as LDC 21- Maastricht Treaty (pg. 45, 552) -signed in February 1992, creation of the European Union, -Treaty was about the European community and monetary money ( the euro) -Treaty also included two pillars which were Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and Justice & Foreign Affairs -the community was given some powers in the fields of education, youth, culture and public health -role of European Parliament was enhanced though a co-decisions procedure that required its approval as well as that of the council for laws -every person who is a citizen of one of the member states of the EU is a citizen of the union www.notesolution.com
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