[PSYA01H3] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 14 pages long Study Guide!

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PSYA01H3
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Saturday, September 24, y
Psychology chapter 1
Module 1.1: The Science of Psychology
Psychology involves the study of behaviour that, broadly defined, can include perceptions,
thoughts, and emotions.
Psychology: as the scientific study of behaviour, thought, and experience, and how they can
be affected by physical, mental, social, and environmental factors.
Scientific Method
Scientific Method: is a way of learning about the world through collecting observations, de-
veloping theories to explain them, and using the theories to make predictions.
oInvolves a dynamic interaction b/w hypothesis testing and the construction of theo-
ries
Hypotheses: Making Predictions
Hypothesis: testable predication about processes that can be observed and measured.
Pseudoscience: an idea that is presented as science but does not actually utilize basic princi-
ples of scientific thinking procedure
Theories: Explaining Phenomena
Theory: explanation for a broad range of observations that also generates new hypotheses
and integrates numerous findings into a coherent whole.
oTheories must be falsifiable: evidence challenging the theory
oTheories are not the same thing as opinions or beliefs
oAll theories are not equally plausible
oA measure of a good theory is not the number of people who believe it to be true
Behaviour can occur on a number of different levels including the activity of cells in differ-
ent parts of the brain, thought processes such as language and memory, and sociocultural
processes that shape daily life for millions of people.
The Biopsychosocial Model
Biopsychosocial model: is a means of explaining behaviour as a product of biological, psy-
chological, and sociocultural factors.
Psychological influences involve our memories, emotions, and personalities, and how these
factors shape the way we think about and respond to different people and situations.
Social factors such as out family, peers, ethnicity, and culture can have a huge effect on our
behaviour. None of these levels of analysis exist on its own. These level influence each other.
Building Scientific Literacy
Scientific literacy: the ability to understand, analyze, and apply scientific information.
Scientific Literacy Model:
1. Gather the available knowledge about the topic being investigated
2. Examine whether the information available about the topic has been tested in scien-
tific studies
3. Examine the limitations of the studies discussed earlier; also look for alternative ex-
planations of the results.
4. Attempt to apply the results to situations outside of the Laboratory
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Critical Thinking, Curiosity, and a Dose of Healthy Skepticism
Critical thinking: involves exercising curiosity and skepticism when evaluating the claims of
others and with our own assumptions and beliefs.
1. Be curious
2. Examine the nature and source of evidence
3. Examine assumptions and biases
4. Avoid overly emotional thinking
5. Tolerate ambiguity. Most complex issues do not have clear-cut answers
6. Consider alternative viewpoints for alternative interpretations of the evidence.
Scientific and critical thinking involve the use of the principle of parsimony (simplest of all
competing explanations)
Module 1.2: How Psychology Becomes a Science
Psychology’s Philosophical and Scientific Origins
Empiricism: a philosophical theory that knowledge comes from experience.
oKnowledge about the world is based on careful observation, not on common sense
of speculation.
Determinism: belief that all events are governed by lawful, cause-and-effect relationship.
oEx. Natural laws such as gravity
oConcept is often followed by the “Free Will vs Determinism” debate
oBehaviour is determined by both internal and external influences.
Psychological science is both empirical and deterministic.
Influences from the Ancients: Philosophy Insights into Behaviour
Egyptian doctors noticed that damage to different brain areas led to vastly different impair-
ments.
Hippocrates: developed the world’s first personality classification scheme.
oFOUR humours or fluids (blood, yellow bile, black bile, and phlegm) flowed
throughout the body and influenced both health and personality
oDifferent combinations of these four humours were thought to lead to specific
moods and behaviour.
Galen of Pergamon: four humours combined to create temperaments, or emotional person-
ality characteristics that remained stable throughout the lifetime.
oSanguine (blood): tendency to be impulsive, pleasure-seeking, and charismatic
oCholeric (yellow bile): tendency to be ambitious, energetic, and a bit aggressive
oMelancholic (black bile): tendency to be independent, perfectionist, and a bit intro-
verted
oPhlegmatic (phlegm): tendency to be quiet, relaxed, and content with life
It took psychology until the late 1800’s to become scientific
Zeitgeist: refers to a general set of beliefs of a particular culture a specific time in history.
oCan be used to understand why some ideas take off immediately, whereas other
preferably good ideas may go unnoticed for years.
Materialism: belief that humans, and other living beings, are composed exclusively of physi-
cal matter.
oAccepting this idea would mean that we are nothing more than complex machines
that lack a self-conscious, self-controlling soul.
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