Chapter 1-4 Vocab + Def

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Published on 14 Jun 2011
School
UTSC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYA01H3
CHAPTER 1
PsychologyScientific study of the causes of behaviour;
also the application of findings of
psychological research to the solution of
problems
Causal eventEvent that causes another even to occur
Physiological psychologyBranch of psychology that studies the
physiological basis of behaviour
Comparative psychologyBranch of psychology that studies the
behaviours of a variety of organisms in an
attempt to understand the adaptive and
functional significance of the behaviours and
their relation to evolution
Behaviour AnalysisBranch of psychology that studies the effect
of the environment on behaviour primary,
the effects of the consequences of behaviours
on the behaviour themselves
Behaviour geneticBranch of psychology that studies the role of
genetics in behaviour
Cognitive psychologyBranch of psychology that studies complex
behaviours and mental processes such as
perception, attention, learning and memory,
verbal behaviour, concept formation, and
problem solving
Cognitive neuroscienceBranch of psychology that attempts to
understand cognitive psychological functions
by studying the brain mechanism that are
responsible for them
Developmental psychologyBranch of psychology that studies the
changes in behavioural, perceptual, and
cognitive capacities of organisms as a
function of age and experience
Social psychologyBranch of psychology devoted to the study of
the effects people have on each others
behaviour
Personality psychologyBranch of psychology that attempts to
categorize and understand the causes of
individuals differences in patterns of
behaviour
Evolutionary psychologyBranch of psychology that explains
behaviour in terms of adaptive advantages
that specific behaviours provided during the
evolution of a species. Evolutionary
psychologists use natural selection as a
during principle
Cross-cultural psychologyBranch of psychology that studies the effects
of culture on behaviour
Clinical psychologyBranch of psychology devoted to the
investigation and treatment of abnormal
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behaviour and psychological disorders
AnimismBelief that all animals and all moving
objects possess spirits providing their motive
force
ReflexAutomatic response to a stimulus, such as
the blink reflex to the sudden unexpected
approach of an object toward the eyes
DualismPhilosophical belief that reality consists of
mind and matter
Model Relatively simple system that works on
known principles and is able to do at least
some of the things that a more complex
system can do
EmpiricismPhilosophical view that all knowledge is
obtained through the senses
MaterialismPhilosophical belief that reality can be
known only through an understanding of the
physical world, of which the mind is a part
Doctrine of specific nerve energiesJohannes Mullers obersavation that
different never fibres convey specific
information from one part of the body to the
brain of from the brain to one part of the
body
Experimental ablation Removal or destruction of a portion of the
brain of an experimental animal for the
purpose of studying the functions of that
region
Psychophysics Branch of psychology that measures the
quantitative relation between physical
stimuli and perceptual experience
DeterminismDoctrine that behaviour is the result of prior
events
Law of effectThorndikes observation that stimuli that
occur as a consequence of a response can
increase or decrease the likelihood of making
that response again
StructuralismSystem of experimental psychology that
began with Wundt; it emphasized the
introspective analysis of sensation and
perception
Introspection Literally, looking within; in an attempt to
describe ones own memories, perceptions,
cognitive, processes, or motivation
FunctionalismStrategy of understanding a species
structural or behaviour features by
attempting to establish their usefulness with
respect to survival and reproductive success
Behaviourism Movement in psychology that asserts that
the only proper subject matter for scientific
study in psychology is observable behavious
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Humanistic psychologyApproach to the study of human behaviour
that emphasizes human experience, choice,
and creativity, slef-realization, and positive
growth
Gestalt psychologyMovement in psychology that emphasized
that cognitive processes could be understood
by studying their organization, not their
elements
Information processing Approach used by cognitive psychologist to
explain the working of the brain;
information received through the senses is
processed by systems of neurons in the brain
CHAPTER 2
Scientific method Set of rules that governs the collection and
analysis of data gained through
observational studies or experiments
Naturalistic observation Observation of the behaviour of people or
other animals in their natural environments
Clinical observation Observation of the behaviour of people who
are undergoing diagnosis or treatment
Correlational studyExamination of relations between two or
more measurements of behaviour or other
characteristics of people or other animals
ExperimentStudy in which the researcher changes the
value of an independent variable and
observes whether this manipulation affects
the value of a dependent variable. Only
experiments can confirm the existence of
cause-and-effect relations among variables
HypothesisStatement, usually designed to be tested by
an experiment that tentatively expresses a
cause-and-effect relationship between two or
more events
TheorySet of statements designed to explain a set
of phenomena; more encompassing than a
hypothesis
Case studyDetailed description of an individuals
behaviour during the course of clinical
treatment or diagnosis
Survey studyStudy of peoples responses to standardized
questions
VariableAnything capable of assuming any of several
values
Manipulation Setting the values of an independent
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