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Textbook and Lecture Notes

Course Code
Steve Joordens

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Chapter 3
Evolutionary Theory
Development of the Evolutionary Theory
- Biological Evolution
- Changes that take place in genetic and physical characteristics of a population or
group of organisms over time
- Adaptive significance:
- Effectiveness of behaviour in aiding organisms to adapt to changing environmental
- Ultimate Causes:
- Evolutionary conditions that slowly shaped behaviour of a species
- Proximate Causes:
- Environmental events / conditions that affect behaviour
- Culture:
- Sum of socially transmitted knowledge, customs and behaviour patterns common to
a particular group of people

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Origin of Species
- Articficial and Natural Selection
- Artificial [Deliberately selected]
- Natural: Consequences of fact that there are more physical and behavioural
differences among organisms
- Reproductive Process
- Number of viable offspring an individual produces relative to the average
- Variation:
- Differences found across individuals of any given species
- In terms of biological genetic and psychological factors
- Genotype:
- An organism's genetic makeup
- Phenotype
- Outward expression of an organism's genotype
- An organism's physical characteristics and behaviour
- Striving of vying with others who share the same ecological niche for food, mates
and territory
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