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[PSYA01H3] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 88 pages long Study Guide!


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA01H3
Professor
Steve Joordens
Study Guide
Final

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UTSC
PSYA01H3
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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PSYA01
Chapter 1: Introducing Psychological Science
1.1 The Science of Psychology
Psychology: the scientific study of behaviour, thought, and experience, and how they can be
affected by physical, mental, social, and environmental factors.
Scientific Method: way of learning about the world through collecting observations, developing
theories to explain them, and using the theories to make predictions.
Hypothesis: a testable prediction about processes that can be observed and measured.
Theory  Hypothesis  Test Hypothesis
Pseudoscience: an idea that is presented as science but does not actually utilize basic principles
of scientific thinking or procedure.
Theory: an explanation for a broad range of observations that also generates new hypotheses and
integrates numerous findings into a coherent whole.
- theories are not that same as opinions/beliefs
- all theories are not equally plausible
- a measure of a good theory is not the number of people who believe it to be true
Biopsychosocial Model: means of explaining behaviour as a product of biological,
psychological, and sociocultural factors.
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Biological Influences:
- brain structures and chemicals
- hormones
- external substances (drugs)
Psychological Influences:
- memories
- emotions
- personalities
Social Influences
- family
- peers
- ethnicity/culture
*Quiz on page 5*
Scientific Literacy: ability to understand,
analyze, and apply scientific information.
(learning new info)
Knowledge Gathering  Scientific
Explanation Critical Thinking  
Application (cycle)
Critical Thinking: involves exercising curiosity and skepticism when evaluating the claims of
others, and with our own assumptions and beliefs
1. Be curious
2. Examine the nature an source of the evidence; not all research is of equal quality
3. Examine assumptions and biases
4. Avoid overly emotional thinking
5. Tolerate ambiguity. Most complex issues do not have clear-cut answers
6. Consider alternative viewpoints and alternative interpretations of the evidence
1.2 How Psychology Became a Science
Philosophical and Scientific Origins
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