Chapter 2: The Ways and Means of Psychology
x Psychologists conduct 3 major types of scientific research
o Naturalistic Observations: observations of people or animals in their natural
environment which are the least formal and are constrained by the fewest rules
o Correlational Studies: observational in nature, but they involve more formal
characteristics, and of their behaviour
o Experiments: go beyond mere measurement. People performing an experiment
make things happen and observe results.
x Scientific Method
o Example: 3D multicoloured posters
Naturalistic observation of yourself or your friends looking at these
posters could provide the context f the problem. Some people take longer
than others t see the hidden objects in these posters
Correlational evidence arises when you start to observe relations between
observations. Ex. Seeing the 3D object faster when its beside a small 2D
picture of the object.
Systematic investigation of the phenomenon through experimentation can
produce concrete evidence about the casual role that you believe visual
hints play ni seeing the 3D objects.
x Rules of the scientific method that apply to experiment²that form of scientific research
that identifies cause ±and²effect relations.
o Identify the problem and formulate hypothetical cause²and²effect relations
among the variables
o Design the experiment
Manipulation of independent variables
Observation of dependent variables
o Perform the experiment
Organize the material to perform experiment
Train people who perform research
Observations are recorded of the experiment
o Evaluate the hypothesis by examining the data from the study.
Do results support hypothesis?
Involves special mathematical procedures to determine whether an
observed effect is statistically significant
o Communicate the results
Tell others about their findings
Write an article