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Ch1 detailed chapter notes i used these to study and did well on the exams

Course Code
Steve Joordens
Study Guide

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Chapter 1
Psychology- scientific studies of the causes of behavior & application of the findings of
psychological research to solution of problems
Causal Event- an event that causes another event to occur
Animism- belief that all animals and all moving objects possess spirits providing their motive force
Dualism- belief that reality consists of mind & matter
Empiricism- view that all knowledge is obtained through the senses
Materialism- belief that reality can be known through understanding of the physical world
Doctrine of Specific Nerve Energies- basic messages sent along the nerves was the same (an
electrical impulse)
Experimental Ablation-removal or destruction of a part of the brain to understand the functions
of that specific part
Psychophysics- study of the relation between physical stimuli and perceptual experience
Structuralism- created by Wundt, it emphasized introspective analysis of sensation and
Introspection- looking within to describe one’s own memories and shit like that
Functionalism- strategy of understanding a species’ structural or behavioural features
Behaviourism- a movement that states that the only proper subject matter for scientific study in
psychology is observable behaviour
Law of Effect- Thorndlike’s observation that stimuli that occur as a consequence of a response
can increase or decrease the likelihood of making that response again
Humanistic Psychology- approach to study of human behaviour that emphasizes human
experience, choice and creativity
Gestalt Psychology- a movement that emphasized cognitive processes could be understood by
studying their organization, not their elements
Chapter 2
Correlational Study- examination of relations between 2 or more measurements of behaviour or
other characteristics
Experiment- can confirm the existence of cause-and-effect relations among variables
Scientific Method- rules that governs the collection and analysis of data gained through
observational studies or experiments
Replication- repetition of an experiment or observational study to see whether previous results
will be obtained
Hypothesis- statement designed to be tested by an experiment, expresses cause-and-effect
relationship between 2 or more events
Theory-set of statements designed to explain a set of phenomena
Variable- anything capable of assuming any several values

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Manipulation- setting the values of an independent variable in an experiment to see whether the
value of another variable is affected
Nominal Fallacy- false belief that one has explained the causes of a phenomenon by identifying
and naming it
Operational Definition- definition of a variable in terms of the operations the researcher
performs to measure or manipulate it
Validity- refers to how appropriate they are for testing the researcher’s hypothesis and how
accurately they represent the variables whose values have been manipulated or measured
Confounding of Variables- changing more than 1 variable which screws up the experiments and
the results aren’t useful in determining the conclusions about cause-and-effect
Counterbalancing- systematic variation of conditions in an experiment, mixing up the variables
so the participants will see them in different order
Reliability- what are the chances that if the experiment was repeated it would have the same
Interrater Reliability- 2 or more independent observers agree in their ratings of another
organism’s behaviour [when 2 psychologists agree based on a certain behaviour]
Placebo- a fake medication that is used to fool the subjects in single-blind or double-blind
Debriefing- informing the subjects of the experiment the reason behind it and the results and
knowledge gained from the experiment in which they took part in
Cross-Cultural Psychology- studies the effects of culture on behaviour
Descriptive Statistics- mathematical procedures of organizing collections of data such as mean
median and other shit
Measure of Central Tendency- measure used to characterize the value of items in a sample of
Measure of Variability- a statistic that describes the degree to which scores in a set of numbers
differ from each other
Standard Deviation – statistic that expresses the variability of a measurement [more different
the numbers are from each other, the larger the standard deviation will be]
Correlation Coefficient- measurement of the degree to which 2 variables are related
Statistical Significance- likelihood that an observed relation or difference between 2 variables
really exists rather than is due to chance factors
Inferential Statistics- procedures for determining whether relations or differences between
sample s are statistically significant
Chapter 3
Adaptive Significance- effectiveness in aiding the organism to adapt to changing environmental
Genotype- an organisms’ genetic makeup
Phenotype- an organism’s physical appearance and behaviour due to the organism’s genotype
Bipedalism- ability to walk around on 2 feet
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