Study Guides (400,000)
CA (160,000)
UTSC (10,000)
Psychology (2,000)
PSYA01H3 (200)

A+ Notes: Final Exam Summary

Course Code
Steve Joordens
Study Guide

This preview shows pages 1-2. to view the full 7 pages of the document.
Memory – cognitive processes of encoding, storing. retrieving info
memory plays a role if past experience affects behaviour
encoding – sensory info form that can be used by brain’s mem. sys.
storage – maintaining info in mem.
retrieval – locating and using stored info – progressive reactivation (ex. last line of song)
3 forms of memory: (modal model of memory) sensory S-T L-T
Sensory Memory – representation of physical features of stimulus stored briefly
can switch attention to have sense of what’s happening
iconic memory (visible persistence) – holds briefs visual image of scene just perceived
Sperling – full report condition 4.5 / 9 letters; partial report (after 1 sec) – 1.5-2 /3
implies 8-9 letters available, but fades once participants start reporting
echoic memory – for sounds just perceived (4-5 secs, up to 20)
what? effect can replay what they just said
Working Memory – immediate memory of stimulus just perceived
fragile (< 20 secs. unless rehearsed) and limited capacity (7 +/-2 chucks)
relationship b/w S-T & L-T mem – use S-T to get things into L-T, also need to pull things from L-T to answer (ex.
5x13) hence, “working”
primacy effect & recency effect – tendency to rmb initial and later info
primacy b/c rehearsed more, recency b/c words are still in S-T mem
phonological loop – repeating the #s (using sounds to rmb)
subvocal articulation – unvoiced speech utterance
conduction aphasia – can understand speech, but can’t repeat exact words
visual spatial sketchpad
things lost from wrk mem. like conveyor belt
L-T Memory - info is represented on permanent basis, doesn’t have to be con’t rehearsed
consolidation – info from S-T L-T, presumably b/c of physical changes to neurons in brain
Rehearsal : maintenance (repeat & repeat) vs elaborative (think, associate, give meaning)
maintenance can keep it in S-T but not necessarily in L-T
Processing : shallow (superficial/surface) vs. deep (meaning, associations)
Processing: effortful (rehearsing info through deep or shallow processing) vs automatic (form memories w/o effort)
encoding specificity – how we encode info determines ability to retrieve
Improve memory: mnemonic system (special techniques in attempt to improve memory)
1) Method of Loci – using landmarks
2) Peg-word method – one-bun, two-shoe…
3) Narrative
dual coding – image & association
L-T Memory Structures
episodic (autobiographic) (events); semantic (academic, general knowledge); procedural (muscle movements)
Implicit (can’t describe mem. – what to do when you’re falling off bike) vs Explicit (can verbally describe mem.)
retrieval cues infl. implicit, level of processing infl. explicit
retrograde amnesia – loss of ability to retrieve past memories, forget up to a pt before hit
anterograde amnesia – inability to form new memory (H.M.) ; can learn new skills, but can’t rmb learning them
hippocampus affects explicit, basal ganglia affects implicit
destruction of hippocampus leads to anterograde amnesia
experiments show rats w/o hippocampus don’t rmb
place cell – neuron that fires when animal in particular location

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

process of retrieving info is automatic process
things become automatic via over learning (ex. reading Stroop example)
quick, not under control, doesn’t interfere w/ other processes
memory forgotten most in 1st few years, decreases only slowly after that Ebbinghaus – faster when relearning
memory comes when appropriate stimulus is presented
tip of the tongue phenomenon – can’t immediately rmb, but we know that we know
recollection – active search for stimuli that will evoke memory
retrieval cues – contextual variables that improve ability to recall info
transfer appropriate processing & state-dependent learning scuba diving experiment, internal context (mood)
Forgetting – due to interference
retroactive interference – new info interferes w/ rmbing old info
proactive interference – old info interferes w/ rmbing new info
role of schemas – only rmb few striking details & try to retell in more coherent and sensible way
false memories by how question is asked, changes how ppl rmb ppl usually confident about their memory
recovered memories – process to recover is similar to process of creating false memories
flashbulb memories – memories from highly surprising events (ex. where were you when heard about 9/11?)
7 “sins” of memory
Consciousness- awareness of other mental processes
historically, consciousness was not natural ~ soul; more recent, consciousness produced by activity in brain
ability to control behaviours, implies responsibility
behaviours are consciously (“goal-directed”) and uncon. influ. (habits)
consciousness as a byproduct of our ability to communicate
Selective Attention – awareness and readiness to respond to particular events in environment
attention plays role in what enters L-T memory, but implicit memory doesn’t req. attention
can’t attend to everything because of “cognitive resources”
dichotic listening – listen to diff things in each ear
shadowing – continuously repeating verbal material as it’s heard
won’t notice change in language as long as physical charact. same
cocktail party phenomenon – can follow one conversation; hear name and attention is pulled away
info in unattended ear seems to bias info (mail/male) somewhat processed? or processed deeply but inhibited?
retain some memory of unattended ear so can switch attention (what? effect)
Visual Info: location – respond quicker if stimulus is where we expect it
nature – can follow one scene, but not both (like cocktail party)
change blindness – can’t detect change when vision is interrupted by
inattentional blindness – failure to perceive an event when attention is diverted elsewhere -> gorilla experiment
more brain activity to where attention is devoted
blindsight – ability to interact w/ objects while consciously unaware of them
perceptual awareness may be diff visual sys. than one used for actions – reaching for diff. size crayons
visual agnosia – can’t recognize object visually, but hand makes movements
isolation aphasia – inability to understand and produce meaningful speech, but can repeat speech and learn new
sequences of words; brain’s speech mechanisms isolated from rest of brain
woman wasn’t conscious of what’s going on
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version