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Final

A+ Notes: Final Exam Summary


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA01H3
Professor
Steve Joordens
Study Guide
Final

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Memory – cognitive processes of encoding, storing. retrieving info
memory plays a role if past experience affects behaviour
encoding – sensory info form that can be used by brain’s mem. sys.
storage – maintaining info in mem.
retrieval – locating and using stored info – progressive reactivation (ex. last line of song)
3 forms of memory: (modal model of memory) sensory S-T L-T
Sensory Memory – representation of physical features of stimulus stored briefly
can switch attention to have sense of what’s happening
iconic memory (visible persistence) – holds briefs visual image of scene just perceived
Sperling – full report condition 4.5 / 9 letters; partial report (after 1 sec) – 1.5-2 /3
implies 8-9 letters available, but fades once participants start reporting
echoic memory – for sounds just perceived (4-5 secs, up to 20)
what? effect can replay what they just said
Working Memory – immediate memory of stimulus just perceived
fragile (< 20 secs. unless rehearsed) and limited capacity (7 +/-2 chucks)
relationship b/w S-T & L-T mem – use S-T to get things into L-T, also need to pull things from L-T to answer (ex.
5x13) hence, “working”
primacy effect & recency effect – tendency to rmb initial and later info
primacy b/c rehearsed more, recency b/c words are still in S-T mem
phonological loop – repeating the #s (using sounds to rmb)
subvocal articulation – unvoiced speech utterance
conduction aphasia – can understand speech, but can’t repeat exact words
visual spatial sketchpad
things lost from wrk mem. like conveyor belt
L-T Memory - info is represented on permanent basis, doesn’t have to be con’t rehearsed
consolidation – info from S-T L-T, presumably b/c of physical changes to neurons in brain
Rehearsal : maintenance (repeat & repeat) vs elaborative (think, associate, give meaning)
maintenance can keep it in S-T but not necessarily in L-T
Processing : shallow (superficial/surface) vs. deep (meaning, associations)
Processing: effortful (rehearsing info through deep or shallow processing) vs automatic (form memories w/o effort)
encoding specificity – how we encode info determines ability to retrieve
Improve memory: mnemonic system (special techniques in attempt to improve memory)
1) Method of Loci – using landmarks
2) Peg-word method – one-bun, two-shoe…
3) Narrative
dual coding – image & association
L-T Memory Structures
episodic (autobiographic) (events); semantic (academic, general knowledge); procedural (muscle movements)
Implicit (can’t describe mem. – what to do when you’re falling off bike) vs Explicit (can verbally describe mem.)
retrieval cues infl. implicit, level of processing infl. explicit
retrograde amnesia – loss of ability to retrieve past memories, forget up to a pt before hit
anterograde amnesia – inability to form new memory (H.M.) ; can learn new skills, but can’t rmb learning them
hippocampus affects explicit, basal ganglia affects implicit
destruction of hippocampus leads to anterograde amnesia
experiments show rats w/o hippocampus don’t rmb
place cell – neuron that fires when animal in particular location

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Remembering
process of retrieving info is automatic process
things become automatic via over learning (ex. reading Stroop example)
quick, not under control, doesn’t interfere w/ other processes
memory forgotten most in 1st few years, decreases only slowly after that Ebbinghaus – faster when relearning
memory comes when appropriate stimulus is presented
tip of the tongue phenomenon – can’t immediately rmb, but we know that we know
recollection – active search for stimuli that will evoke memory
retrieval cues – contextual variables that improve ability to recall info
transfer appropriate processing & state-dependent learning scuba diving experiment, internal context (mood)
Forgetting – due to interference
retroactive interference – new info interferes w/ rmbing old info
proactive interference – old info interferes w/ rmbing new info
Reconstruction
role of schemas – only rmb few striking details & try to retell in more coherent and sensible way
false memories by how question is asked, changes how ppl rmb ppl usually confident about their memory
recovered memories – process to recover is similar to process of creating false memories
flashbulb memories – memories from highly surprising events (ex. where were you when heard about 9/11?)
7 “sins” of memory
Consciousness- awareness of other mental processes
historically, consciousness was not natural ~ soul; more recent, consciousness produced by activity in brain
ability to control behaviours, implies responsibility
behaviours are consciously (“goal-directed”) and uncon. influ. (habits)
consciousness as a byproduct of our ability to communicate
Selective Attention – awareness and readiness to respond to particular events in environment
attention plays role in what enters L-T memory, but implicit memory doesn’t req. attention
can’t attend to everything because of “cognitive resources”
dichotic listening – listen to diff things in each ear
shadowing – continuously repeating verbal material as it’s heard
won’t notice change in language as long as physical charact. same
cocktail party phenomenon – can follow one conversation; hear name and attention is pulled away
info in unattended ear seems to bias info (mail/male) somewhat processed? or processed deeply but inhibited?
retain some memory of unattended ear so can switch attention (what? effect)
Visual Info: location – respond quicker if stimulus is where we expect it
nature – can follow one scene, but not both (like cocktail party)
change blindness – can’t detect change when vision is interrupted by
inattentional blindness – failure to perceive an event when attention is diverted elsewhere -> gorilla experiment
more brain activity to where attention is devoted
Neuropsych
blindsight – ability to interact w/ objects while consciously unaware of them
perceptual awareness may be diff visual sys. than one used for actions – reaching for diff. size crayons
visual agnosia – can’t recognize object visually, but hand makes movements
isolation aphasia – inability to understand and produce meaningful speech, but can repeat speech and learn new
sequences of words; brain’s speech mechanisms isolated from rest of brain
woman wasn’t conscious of what’s going on
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