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A+ Notes: Midterm Summary

Course Code
Steve Joordens
Study Guide

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Psych Mid-term
Psych – the science of behav
the mind was independent free spirit mind as part of brain whose func. is to control behav
casual events – causes another event to occur
Areas of Psych Research 1) type of behav. 2) what casual events?
physiological – organic processes/func. (esp. nervous sys.)
chemical brain behav
Comparative – study other speciies similarities/diff w/ humans
evolutionary adaption behav
Behaviour analysis- effect of consequences on behav. (learning and motivation)
law of effect – good-> more, bad ->less
Behaviour genetics – role of genes on behav
Cognitive psych – complex behav & mental processes (perception, attention, memory…
Cognitive neuroscience – physiological + cognitive psych; cog. psych through brain mechanisms
developmental – how age/experience affects behav
social - effect of other ppl on ppl (social influences)
personality – indiv. diff. (temperament & personal history) pattern of behav.
evolutionary – adaptive adv. of specific behav. during evolution
natural selection as guiding prin.
“bad” behav (now) must have had some purpose throughout evoution
cross-culture – impact of culture on behav
clinical – investigation & treatment of psych disorders (apply learning of causes to help patient)
Philosophy Roots
early on, everything attributed souls – animism (everything that moved had souls, even gravity)
problem: if humans had soul, can’t be studied scientifically (to be science, must be material)
Rene Descartesdualism (humans had both mind and matter (soul & free will)
non-mechanical mind controlled mechanical body
human was machine – reflexes are automatic responses to stimulus that didn’t require mind
John Locke – even the mind is a machines
empiricism – running experiments
process of learning: all ideas from experience – babies are blank slate
Berkeley: learning is through perception
James Millmaterialism (mind is part of physical world and can be studied)
Biological Roots
Luigi Galvani – “dancing frog leg” doesn’t need soul to work
Muller doctrine of specific nerve energies
basic msg sent is same, an electric impulse received diff. led to notion of brain regions
Flourensablation (remove parts to see their function)
Broca’s region/ theory of Phrenology (touching head to feel size of brain)
Fritsch & Hitzig – electric stimulation to map brain functions
Hermann von Helmholtz – speed of nerve impulses (by ppl squeezing hands)
Weber – ratio with weights (psychophysics)
determinism – behav, is the result of prior events
materialism implies determinism (which is opposed to free will), determinism allows prediction that an outcome will
follow cause
“Wild Boy of Averyron” Itard (physician) tried to teach boy language
Pinel – introduced that mental disorders could be treated

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John Dewey – children learn through goals, estab. habits to integrate child into society “Progressive education”
Throndikelaw of effect (repeat behav. after success)
identify discrete units that make up task to be learnt, based on rewards for learning
vs. Montessori – exercises matching child’s competency at the stage, physical movement related to learning, rewards
interfered with natural incentive to learn
Development of Psych
William Wundt – 1st psychologist – introspection (ppl analyze own inner thoughts)
ignore complex perceptions, focus on elementary ones
Structuralism – “structure of the mind” emphasized introspection, structure of inner experience
died out b/c relied on subjectiveness & psych shifted from study of mind to study of behav.
Functionalism – thinking was a function, like other functions, produced useful and adaptive behav.
try to understand behav. in terms of adaptive usefulness
observable behav. not based on private mental events
William James (theory of emotion), Darwin
Differences between Functionalism and Structuralism
1. struc. “what does internal world look like” components of consciousness (ideas and sensations)
func. “what is purpose of internal thoughts/exper. process of conscious activity (perceiving and learning)
2. func. is study of mental operations, not mental processes (mind rmbs, doesn’t contain memory)
3. mental process studied as part of biological activity (process of adaption & evolution)
4. relation b//w enviro. & response of organism to enviro (mind & body were same entity)
Ebbinghaus – memory using non-words (pt is quantified something abstract like memory)
Freud – clinical psych – psychodynamic theory
his theory of mind had structures (but not like Wundt’s)
structures of ego, superego, id part of unconsciourness (not ava. to introspection)
emphasized his mental struc. served biological drives and instincts
guy not “seeing” traumatic event (no physical cause of blindness, cause is psychological cause)
(N. Amer) Behaviourism –psych research should only be on observable behav. focus on objectivity, study of stimulus and
their consequent behav.
Watson estab. as school
Thorndike’s law of effect (cats and #D mazes – 1st time took long, but eventually learned route), Pavlov’s dog (classical
conditioning – response to stimulus that had never causes such response), BF Skinner
Margaret Washburn – introspection is form of behav.
vs. (Europe) Geshalt Psych & Humanistic Psych
humanistic – focus on human experience, creativity, choice, self-realization, growth
emphasis on positive human nature, & potential for personal growth
Geshalt – perception, org’n of cognitive processes, “is there one leg or two legs?”
cognitive psych (understanding processes underlying behav.)
uses info processing (info received by senses processed by sys, of neurons in brain)
model of the brain is a computer
Against Behaviourism: Neurobiology Donald Hebb
find out what part of brain does what and their role in behav
mental processes could be directly related to brain activity (challenge behaviourism notion)
technology has allowed study of brain in greater detail
3 types of scientific research:
naturalistic observation – in natural enviro; clinical observation – observe while undergoing treatment
case studies (clinical obsev.)
survey study study of ppl’s responses to standardised ques
correlational studies - examine b/w 2+ measurements of behav.

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experiments – scientific method
Scientific Method
1. Identify problem & hypothesis
tentative statement of c-e relation b/w 2+ behav.
2. Design experiment
independent and dependent variable
manipulate – set indep. to see if dep. is affected
experimental (manipulated indep.) vs. control group (zero-value/natural value of indep)
operational def. – def. of variable in terms of what is done to measure or manipulate it
avoid nominal fallacy
Validity – how appropriate op. def. is for testing hypothesis
manipulation checks – get 3rd party (ex. lecturer tries to encourage participation, but students not
part. manipulation didn’t work)
converging evidence – diff. ppl test same hypothesis w/ diff. op. def. for same results
confounding variables – more than indep. was changed
counterbalance – switch order (avoid habituation)
3. Perform experiment
Reliability – how well you can measure
oextraneous factors (ex. poorly scanned images)
oconsistent condition
oobjectivity (not subjective what’s friendliness)
interrater reliability
random assignment
single blind and double studies
Hawthorne studies – sol: decption
4. Evaluate Results and Hypothesis
5. Comm’n of Results
replication – can repeat and get same result
generalization – results apply to general pop. (get good sample)
more replication better generalizations
correlational studies – examine relation b/w 2+ measurement of behav.
correlation doesn’t imply causation!
matching – match charact. of participants (ex. age, gender) but might still miss out on certain variables
Ethics (Humans)
Ethics (Animals) – can do more invasive experiments, must be humane and worthwhile
descriptive stats – summarizes data (ex. mean, median, range)
central tendency
variability – degree in which data differs from each other
range (larger range = larger variability)
MAD – mean absolute deviation
standard deviation & variance (V = SD2)
measure of relations – scatter plot, correlation coefficient (-1 to 1 for linear relations)
inferential stats – determine if relations are stat sig. (2 sets of data diff. or same diff infer correlation)
stat. sig. – relation is not due to chance (if no manipulation, how much diff. b/w 2 groups?)
Darwin – biological evolution ( change over time for better adaptivenss in enviro) – Alfred Wallace
adaptive significance - effectiveness in aiding organisms to adapt
ultimate causes – from the past; proximate causes (from current enviro)
evolutionary psych – how organism’s enviro. history contributes to behav.
culture – socially transmitted knowledge, customs, behav, common to particular ppl
how thinking and behaving shaped cultural adaptations?
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